1. The total Solar eclipse of the 21st Century occurred on:

1) 20th July, 2009
2) 21st July, 2009
3) 22nd July, 2009
4) 23rd July, 2009

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2. The following is the outline map of a country. Identify it:

1) Brazil
2) Mexico
3) Iran
4) Canada

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3. The following is the outline map of a State in India. Identify it :
1) Orissa
2) Uttar Pradesh
3) Tamil Nadu
4) Karnataka

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4. The following is the outline map of a District in Andhra Pradesh. Identify it:

1) Karimnagar
2) Khammam
3) Guntur
4) Anantapur

5. The outer layer of the earth is known as :
1) Mantle
2) Core
3) Cirrus
4) Crust
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6. Which one of the following is the major Ocean of the world?
1) Indian Ocean
2) Atlantic Ocean
3) Pacific Ocean
4) Arctic Ocean
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7. Latitudes are imaginary lines drawn parallel to the Equator and run from :
1) North to South
2) East to West
3) Arctic circle to North pole
4) South pole to Tropic of cancer
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8. Bandipur National Park/Wildlife sanctuary is in :
1) Assam
2) Gujarat
3) Karnataka
4) Tamil Nadu
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9. On 21st March and 21st September the Sun's rays fall directly on :
1) Exosphere
2) Equator
3) Stratosphere
4) Tropic of Capricorn
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10. In Andhra Pradesh among the following lead deposits are found in:
1) Kurnool District
2) Nizamabad District
3) Vijayanagaram District
4) Chittoor District
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11. The first Coalition Government formed at the Centre was :
1) Janata Government
2) United Front Government
3) National Democratic Government
4) National Front Government
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12. The Article 243-G of the Indian Constitution contains :
1) The financial resources of Panchayat Raj Bodies
2) The functions of the Nyaya Panchayats
3) The powers and functions of Village Panchayats
4) The powers of chairpersons of Zilla Parishads and Mandal Parishads
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13. Gandhiji launched his first Satyagraha is South Africa in the year :
1) 1905
2) 1906
3) 1915
4) 1916
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14. The 97th Constitutional Amendment Act resulted in the :
1) Readjustment of Lok Sabha Constituencies
2) Prohibition of Members of Parliament to hold offices of profit
3) Increase in the number of languages in the 8th Schedule of the Constitution
4) Limiting the size of the cabinet at the centre and state levels to 10 percent of the total strength of the respective lower houses
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15. The method which became popular in recent past for employing persons for various jobs in the public as well as private sectors is :
1) Contract appointments
2) Emergency recruitment
3) Outsourcing
4) On-line recruitment
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16. Sustainable development exactly means :
1) Improving the conditions of present generation without affecting the needs of future generation
2) Development that percoloates to the bottom level sections in the society
3) Development with social justice
4) Development that lasts for a long time
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17. President Rule was imposed in Andhra Pradesh in 1973 because of:
1) Telangana agitation
2) Jai Andhra Movement
3) Political instability
4) Failure of Constitutional Machinery
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18. The lowest number of seats won by the Congress Party in the Andhra Pradesh State Assembly Elections held in the year :
1) 1983
2) 1985
3) 1994
4) 1999
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19. The name of the Programme recently introduced by Government of Andhra Pradesh to merge all the anti-poverty programmes into a single integrated scheme is :
1) Velugu
2) Indira Prabha
3) Rajiv Gandhi Pragathi Patham
4) Indira Kranthi Pathakam
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20. Providing microfinance arrangements to the poor women for extension of credit along with thrift-type of saving schemes is through :
1) Jawahar Rozgar Yojana
2) Self-Help Groups
3) National Rural Employment Programme
4) Indira Prabha
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21. Minimum support prices for food crops to the Union Government is recommended by :
1) Agricultural Commission
2) Ministry of Agriculture
3) Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices
4) Food Corporation of India
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22. The duration of medium term agricultural credit is :
1) 15 months to 5 years
2) 5 years to 10 years
3) less than 3 months
4) 3 months to 6 months
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23. Karl Pearson's coefficient of correlation lies between :
1) –1 to +1
2) –1 to 0
3) 0 to 1
4) 1 to 100
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REFERENCE : Wikipedia click here

24. Saving is :
1) the major determinant of growth
2) the only determinant of growth
3) one of the determinants of growth
4) not concerned with growth
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25. Which of the following descriptions does not explain VAT as per its conceptualisation?
1) It will diminish revenue buoyancy
2) It is a harmonised commodity taxation regime
3) Its effects are non-cascading
4) It is a self-enforcing system
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26. Heavy Sector Strategy is associated with the name of :
1) Brahmananda
2) Mahalanobis
3) Bhagwati
4) Chakravarti
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27. A stable macroeconomy contributes to global integration through the :
1) Ability to withstand shocks
2) Use of prices as signals
3) High returns from education
4) Creation of financial discipline
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28. One of the key elements of India's market based developmental strategy is :
1) No Government intervention
2) Investment in physical capital
3) Integration with the global economy
4) A rapidly changing macroeconomy
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29. The Comptroller and Auditor General submits his Annual Report regarding the Centre to :
1) The Prime Minister
2) The President
3) The Parliament
4) The Chairman of the Planning Commission
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30. The Regional Rural Bank is a bank sponsored by :
1) Reserve Bank of India
2) Ministry of Finance
4) Scheduled Commercial Bank
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31. Alfred Noble is associated with the invention of :
1) Cosmic rays
2) Dynamite
3) Dynamo
4) Penicillin
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32. The period of revolution of a geostationary satellite is :
1) 365 days
2) 30 days
3) 1 day
4) 12 hours
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33. Permanent hardness of water is due to the presence of :
1) Calcium sulphate
2) Calcium bicarbonate
3) Sodium bicarbonate
4) Magnesium bicarbonate
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34. The Greenhouse effect deals with :
1) Cooling of lower atmosphere
2) Warming of upper atmosphere
3) Cooling of upper atmosphere
4) Warming of lower atmosphere
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35. Pace-maker is related to :
1) heart
2) lung
3) liver
4) kidney
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36. Inertia is the property of :
1) force
2) strength
3) mass
4) volume
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37. Tea will cool most easily in :
1) glass cup
2) metal cup
3) clay cup
4) porcelain cup
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38. When there is no external force acts on a system of particles, the velocity of centre of mass of the system will be :
1) increased
2) decreased
3) zero
4) constant
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39. If the momentum of a body is increased by 100%, th kinetic energy will be increased by :
1) 300%
2) 200%
3) 100%
4) 50%
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40. The colour given by excess Lithium in Lithium Chloride solid is :
1) Violet
2) Green
3) Pink
4) Yellow
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41. Sodium benzoate is used as a :
1) flavouring agent
2) preservative
3) colouring agent
4) antacid
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42. The element used in Integrated circuits of computers is :
1) Iron
2) Magnesium
3) Aluminium
4) Silicon
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43. Brass is an alloy of :
1) Copper and Aluminium
2) Copper and Tin
3) Copper and Zinc
4) Copper and Nickel
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44. Blood is a :
1) Solution
2) Colloid
3) Emulsion
4) Gel
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45. Mosquito repellents contain mainly :
1) calcium dihydrogen phosphate
2) potassium hydrogen phosphate
3) sodium hydrogen sulphate
4) ammonium bicarbonate
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46. The economically useful part in Ginger is :
1) Bulb
2) Fruit
3) Rhizome
4) Root
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47. The edible part of coffee seed is :
1) Tapetum
2) Mace
3) Caruncle
4) Perisperm
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48. Lutein is a/an :
1) Blue coloured pigment
2) Yellow coloured pigment
3) Brown coloured pigment
4) Orange coloured pigment
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REFERENCE : Click Here

49. In the area of Biotechnology enzyme that is produced commercially both from plants and microbes is :
1) Papain
2) Trypsin
3) Protease
4) Amylase
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50. Plants that grow in seashores are called as :
1) Halophytes
2) Hydrophytes
3) Xerophytes
4) Psammophytes
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51. The study of animal behaviour is called as :
1) Etymology
2) Ethology
3) Ecology
4) Euphenics
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52. Vitamin related with production of antibodies is :
1) B6
2) B12
3) B1
4) B2
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53. Serological tests have enormous value in the process of :
1) Classification
2) Identification
3) Diversity
4) Code of nomenclature
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54. Pearls are the products from :
1) Annelids
2) Arthropods
3) Poriferans
4) Molluscs
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55. Siphoning type of mouth parts are present in :
1) Mosquito
2) Cockroach
3) Butterfly
4) Housefly
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56. The space shuttle launched by NASA in November, 2009 was :
1) Atlantis
2) Challenger
3) Columbia
4) Discovery
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REFERENCE : Click Here

57. The United Nations Climate Change Conference, 2009 was concluded in :
1) Poland
2) Denmark
3) China
4) Japan
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58. Recently, the manuscripts of which one of the following has been included in the UNESCO's Memory of World Register?
1) Mahabharata
2) Ramayana
3) Rigveda
4) Abhidhamma Pitaka
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59. In February, 2009, the first model e-COurt in India was launched by the :
1) High Court of Gujarat
2) High Court of Tamil Nadu
3) High Court of Himachal Pradesh
4) High Court of Andhra Pradesh
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60. Global Campaign '350' was observed as an International Day for Climate Action on :
1) 25th October, 2009
2) 30th October, 2009
3) 14th October, 2009
4) 24th October, 2009 
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61. The Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation Model of Economic Development assigns a key role to the :
1) Foreign Direct Investment
2) Information Technology
3) Private Sector
4) Public-Private partnership
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62. The bulk of the business relating to the Indian Stock Market is handled by the :
1) Reserve Bank of India
2) Bombay Stock Exchange
3) National Stock Exchange
4) International Stock Exchange
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63. Achievement of the growth rate of 9.5% is/was the target of :
1) Ministry of Finance
2) Eleventh Five Year Plan
3) Tenth Five Year Plan
4) Planning Commission
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64. The recent statement made by the Indian Prime Minister that the Higher Education in India can be developed through adopting approach of :
1) Privatisation
2) Involvement of Foreign Providers
3) Earmaking 60% of the national income for higher education
4) Public-Private partnership
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65. The crisis of which impelled the Central Government to introduce far reaching reforms in the country's economy in 1990-1991 was :
1) Balance of payments crisis
2) Crisis in Public Sector
3) Financial crisis
4) Foreign exchange
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66. Introducing a man, a woman said, "He is the only son of my mother's mother." How is the woman related to the man?
1) Sister
2) Niece
3) Aunt
4) Mother
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67. Five girls are sitting in a row. Rashi is not adjacent to Sulekha or Abha. Anuradha is not adjacent to Sulekha. Rashi is adjacent to Monika. Monika is at the middle in the row. Then Anuradha is adjacent to whom out of the following?
1) Rashi
2) Monika
3) Abha
4) Sulekha
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68. Which two months in a year have the same calendar?
1) April, June
2) January, December
3) April, July
4) June, October
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69. Rahul ranks tenth from the top and thirty-fourth from the bottom in a class. How many students are there in the class?
1) 45
2) 43
3) 46
4) 44
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70. Arrange the following items from general to particular :
a) Animal
b) Feline
c) Leopard
d) Mammal
e) Vertebrate
f) Cat

1) adcbef
2) acedbf
3) abcdef
4) aedbcf

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71. In a group of 15 people, 7 read French, 8 read English while 3 of them read none of these two. How many of them read both French and English?
1) 0
2) 3
3) 4
4) 5
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72. Find the missing character from among the alternatives :

1) 9
2) 12
3) 18
4) 6
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73. What is always in worry?
1) Non-Cooperation
2) Unrest
3) Poignancy
4) Difficulty
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74. Identify the odd one in the following :
1) Hinduism
2) Christianity
3) Zoroastrianism
4) Islam
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75. What does the following sign indicate?

1) Hospital
2) First Aid
3) Cross Road
4) No Parking
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76. If these letters RIDANI DINAGM rearranged, it would be the name of a :
1) Political leader
2) President
3) Governor
4) Actor
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77. If KNOWLEDGE is coded as '256535475' the 'GENERAL' is coded as :
1) 7545993
2) 7969393
3) 7555912
4) 7555913
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78. 'Gas' is to 'Pipe' as 'Electricity' is to :
1) Current
2) Switch
3) Wire
4) Regulator
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79. Mention the sport/game with which the term Mashie is most closely associated :
1) High Jump
2) Golf
3) Volleyball
4) Kho-Kho
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80. Mention the term with which the game Chess is closely associated:
1) Castle
2) Home Run
3) Mashie
4) Raider
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81. Identify the name of the creator of the popular fictional character Lord Voldemort :
1) Eoin Coulfer
2) J.K. Rowling
3) Salman Rushdie
4) Edgar Rice Burroughs
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82. Identify the name of the popular fictional character created by Edgar Rice Burroughs :
1) Feluda
2) Hercule Poirot
3) Tarzan
4) Gandalf
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83. The slogan of State Bank of India is :
1) With you all the way
2) A tradition of trust
3) Trusted family Bank
4) Care at every stage of life
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84. Identify the following Emblem :

1) Union Public Service Commission
2) Government of Andhra Pradesh
3) University Grants Commission
4) National Council of Educational Research and Training
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85. The following Emblem indicates :

1) Doordarshan
2) Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited
3) Steel Authority of India Limited
4) Bharat Heavey Electricals Limited
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86. The following Emblem belongs to :

1) Indian Bank
2) Canara Bank
3) Syndicate Bank
4) Andhra Bank
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87. 'Body' includes 'limb' as 'tree' includes :
1) Seed
2) Wood
3) Branch
4) Soil
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88. A train is travelling at a speed of 120 km per hour. How long will it take to travel 10 kms?
1) 5 minutes
2) 10 minutes
3) 10 minutes
4) 15 minutes
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89. A student got twice as many sums wrong as he got right. If he attempted 36 sums in all, how many did he solve correctly?
1) 18
2) 24
3) 9
4) 12
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90. Rearrange the letters SESTA to make meaningful word :
1) Sets
2) Asset
3) Tests
4) Tseas
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91. Who known as the Plato of the Jat tribe?
1) Churaman
2) Raja Ram
3) Surajmal
4) Badan Singh
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92. After Bengal, the English secured the rights of duty free trade in the dominions of :
1) Nawab of Awadh
2) The Nizam of Hyderabad
3) Raja of Banaras
4) The Jats of Bharatpur
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93. 'Madhura Vijayam' was composed by :
1) Molla
2) Gangadevi
3) Ramabhadramba
4) Madhuravani
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94. The Vernacular Press Act was passed during the tenure of :
1) Warren Hastings
2) Bentinck
3) Lytton
4) Curzon
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95. The founder of the Servants of India Society was :
1) Dadabhai Naoroji
2) Gopalkrishna Gokhale
3) M.G. Ranade
4) Balgangadhar Tilak
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96. Who was popularly called as Andhra Shivaji?
1) Duggirala Gopala Krishnaiah
2) Kanneganti Hanumanthu
3) Konda Venkatappaiah
4) P. Veerayya Chowdary
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97. The first Indian King who abdicated his throne, was :
1) Chandragupta I
2) Asoka
3) Chandragupta Maurya
4) Samudragupta
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98. The founder of Nalanda University was :
1) Kumaragupta
2) Samudragupta
3) Asoka
4) Nalanda
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99. Who defeated Harsha and assumed the title 'Parameshwar'?
1) Pulakesin I
2) Pulakesin II
3) Mahendravarman I
4) Mahendravarman II
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100.Jahangir's Court was visited by the English trader, namely :
1) Daniel
2) Christofer
3) Sir William John
4) Sir Thomas Roe
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101.What was the childhood name of Nur Jahan?
1) Bahu Begam
2) Bharagal Nisha
3) Maharul Nisa
4) Mumtaj
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102.Which Governor-General is associated with the 'Doctrine of Lapse'?
1) Cornwallis
2) Ripon
3) Curzon
4) Dalhousie
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103. When was the Hyderabad State Congress formed?
1) 1938
2) 1935
3) 1932
4) 1929
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104. The Direct Action Day observed by the Muslim League was on :
1) August 12, 1946
2) August 15, 1946
3) August 16, 1946
4) August 15, 1947
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105. The 'Kurnool Circular' was issued by the State Congress leaders during :
1) Vandemataram Movement
2) Quit India Movement
3) Salt Satyagraha
4) Non-Cooperation Movement
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106. On the Western end of Lake Ontario the chief iron and steel producer is :
1) Hamilton
2) Sydney
3) Trenton
4) Regina
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107.The Tweed Valley is located in :
1) Bradford
2) Leeds
3) Scotland
4) Huddersfield
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108.The highest peak in Australia is :
1) Mt. Ossa
2) Mt. Woodroppe
3) Mt. Bruce
4) Mt. Kosciuska
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109. The largest bauxite field of Australia is located at :
1) Grove
2) Weipa
3) Orange
4) Victoria
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110. Nikopol deposits of Ukraine consists of :
1) Manganese
2) Chromite
3) Copper
4) Nickel
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111.The region between Kunlun mountains and the Alyn Tagh is called:
1) Mongolian plateau
2) Dzungarian Basin
3) Tsaidam Basin
4) Tarim Basin
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112.The chief centre for tin smelting in South-east Asia is :
1) Java
2) Sumatra
3) Myanmar
4) Singapore
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113.The name of highest mountain in Africa is :
1) Mt. Cameroon
2) Mt. Kilimanjaro
3) Mt. Elgon
4) Mt. Kenya
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114. In India, the annual rainfall variability is above 60% in the State of :
1) Gujarat
2) Arunachal Pradesh
3) Assam
4) Manipur
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115.In India among the given states below, in which state Manganese ore production is high?
1) Maharashtra
2) Andhra Pradesh
3) Orissa
4) Karnataka
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116. In Andhra Pradesh, the Kesoram Cements is located in the district of :
1) Karimnagar
2) Vijayanagaram
3) Ranga Reddy
4) Kadapa
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117.Among the given basins in India, in which basin the groundwater potential is found high?
1) Narmada
2) Krishna
3) Godavari
4) Cauvery
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118.Maihan Dam has been constructed across the River :
1) Bokaro
2) Barakar
3) Damodar
4) Konar
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119.Nicolaus Copernicus was the 16th Century :
1) Astronomer
2) Mathematician
3) Navigator
4) Philosopher
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120.Annapurna, one of the highest mountains in the World is in :
1) India
2) Tibet
3) Bhutan
4) Nepal
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121. The Indian girl, who got a rare honour to address World leaders at the United Nations Summit on Climate Change was :
1) Anjana Sharma
2) Yugratna Srivastava
3) Soumya Bhattacharjee
4) Pratiksha Chakravarthy
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122.Chandrayan II is designed jointly by India and :
1) Japan
2) Germany
3) Russia
4) France
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123.Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of India is :
1) S.H. Kapadia
2) A.R. Dave
3) D.S.R. Varma
4) K.G. Balakrishnan
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124.India launched the Census, 2011 on :
1) 1st January, 2010
2) 1st February, 2010
3) 1st March, 2010
4) 1st April, 2010
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125.The General Elections in Great Britain were held on :
1) 5th May, 2010
2) 6th May, 2010
3) 7th May, 2010
4) 8th May, 2010
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126.The ICC World Women's Twenty-20, Champion 2010 is :
1) India
2) Sri Lanka
3) Australia
4) New Zealand
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127. Millennium's longest Annular Solar eclipse occurred on :
1) 15th January, 2010
2) 16th January, 2010
3) 17th January, 2010
4) 18th January, 2010
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128.Agni-I ballistic missile which was test-fired in March, 2010 has a range of :
1) 300 km
2) 500 km
3) 700 km
4) 900 km
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129.Viswanathan Anand won the FIDE World Chess Championship by defeating :
1) Boiko Borisov
2) Veselin Topalov
3) Dinara Safina
4) Ana Ivanovic
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130.Shyam Saran of Kalpa village of Kinnaur district was honoured by Navin Chavla, Chief Election
Commissioner of India in Himachal Pradesh on 12th June, 2010 as he happened to be :
1) One of the senior citizens of India
2) One of the voters casting his vote in all the elections
3) One of the first few voters of Pre-independent India
4) One of the first few voters of Independent India
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131.Swayamsidha Scheme launched in the year 2002 was dedicated to:
1) Women's Literacy
2) Women's Health
3) Women's Empowerment
40 Women's Welfare
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132.The winner of the Gold Medal at the Second World Sand Sculpture Championship is :
1) Sudarsan Pattnaik
2) Someswar Pathak
3) Goutham Prasad
4) Harischandra Mukharjee
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133.The Nobel Prize in Literature for 2009 is awarded to :
1) Olivers Williamson
2) Herta Mueller
3) Elinor Ostrom
4) Thomas Steitz
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134.The winner of the Spelling Bee Prize, 2010 in Washington held on 4th June 2010 is :
1) Sameer Mishra
2) Kavya Shivashankar
3) Anamika Veeramani
4) Shantanu Srivastav
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135.The Sakshara Bharat Scheme introduced by Government of India will be in operation upto :
1) March, 2011
2) March, 2012
3) March, 2015
4) March, 2020
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136.The first set of Identify Numbers as per the Unique Identification Authority of India will be issued in :
1) February, 2011
2) July, 2011
3) January, 2012
4) June, 2012
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137.The opening match of the FIFA 2010 World Cup was played between :
1) South Africa and Mexico
2) South Africa and Nigeria
3) South Africa and America
4) South Africa and England
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138.Earth Hour is a global event organised by :
1) Bureau of Energy Efficiency
2) United Nations
3) European Union
4) World Wide Fund for Nature/World Wildlife Fund
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139.The 15th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement was held in :
1) Cuba
2) Egypt
3) Sri Lanka
4) India
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140.Smile Pinki, a documentary film won the :
1) Oscar award
2) Nobel award
3) Dada Saheb Phalke award
4) Bhatnagar award
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141.In which of the following subjects were the Vedic Aryans not preficient?
1) Astronomy
2) Mathematics
3) Chemistry
4) Medicine
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142.Which of the Pallava rulers is known as 'Vichitrachitta'?
1) Mahendravarman
2) Parameswaravarman
3) Narasimhavarman I
4) Narasimhavarman II
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143.Jayapa Senani composed 'Nrittaratnavali' during the reign of :
1) Rudradeva
2) Ganapatideva
3) Rudramadevi
4) Pratapa Rudra
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144.Harappan people had close external contact with :
1) Iran
2) Egypt
3) Bahrain
4) Mesopotamia
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145.Which Vedic text first refers to moneylending?
1) Atharvaveda
2) Yajurveda
3) Satapatha Brahmana
4) Gopatha Brahmana
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146.In the Chola Kingdom, a very large village administered as a single unit was called :
1) Kurram
2) Kottam
3) Nadu
4) Taniyur
Click For ANSWER 
147.The state-pormoted canal irrigation system was initiated by :
1) Alauddin Khalji
2) Ghyasuddin Tughlaq
3) Firuz Tughlaq
4) Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq
Click For ANSWER 
148.The Vijayanagar King who totally withdrew the marriage tax was :
1) Krishnadevaraya
2) Devaraya II
3) Achyutaraya
4) Sadasivaraya
Click For ANSWER 
149.The style of vocal Hindustani music which was non-Islamic in character was :
1) Taraka
2) Khayal
3) Gawwalis
4) Dhrupad
Click For ANSWER 
150.At the time of his coronation at Kalanaur the age of Akbar was :
1) Fifteen
2) Fourteen
3) Twenty
4) Eighteen
Click For ANSWER 

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Constitutional Developments

The Indian Administrative structure is largely a legacy of the British rule. The various functional aspects such as public services, education system, political set up, recruitment, training, office procedures, district administration, local administration, police system, revenue administration, budgeting, auditing, and so on, have their roots in the British rule.

The British rule in India can be divided into two phases- the Company rule till 1858 and the Crown's rale from 1858 to 1947.


The landmarks in the development of the Constitution are:

Regulating Act of 1773
This was the first step taken by the British Government to control and regulate the affairs of the East India Company in India.
• It designated the Governor of Bengal as the Governor-General of India.
• The first Governor-General was Lord Warren Hastings.
• It subordinated the Governors of Bombay and Madras to the Governor-General of Bengal. The Supreme Court was established at Fort Williams as the Apex Court in 1774.

Pitt's India Act of 1784
It was introduced to remove the drawbacks of the Regulating Act.
Was named after the then British Prime Minister.
Placed the Indian affairs under the direct control of the British Government.
Established a Board of Control over the of Directors.

Charter Act of 1833
It made the Governor-General of Bengal as the Governor-General of India.
First Governor-General of India was Lord William Bentick.
Governor-General's Council were separated.
It introduced a system of open competition as the basis for the recruitment of civil servants of the Company.

Government of India Act of 1858
This Act transferred the Government, territories and revenues of India from the East India Company to the British Crown.
In other words, the rule of Company was replaced by the rule of the Crown in India.
The powers of the British Crown were to be exercised by the Secretary of State for India.
• The Secretary of State was a member of the British Cabinet.
• He was assisted by the Council of India, having 15 members.
• He was vesterlwith complete authority and control over the Indian administration through the Governor-General as his agent.
• He was responsible ultimately to the British Parliament.
• The Governor-General was made the Viceroy of India.
Lord Canning was the first Viceroy of India.

Indian Councils Act of 1861 It introduced for the first time the representative institutions in India.
• It provided that the Governor-General's Executive Council should have some Indians as the non-official members while transacting the legislative businesses.

Government of India Act of 1935
• The Act provided for the establishment of an All-India Federation consisting of the Provinces and the Princely States as the units.
• The Act divided the powers between the Centre and the units in terms of three lists, namely the Federal List, the Provincial List and the Concurrent List.
• The Federal List for the Centre consisted of 59 items, the Provincial List for the Provinces consisted of 54 items and the Concurrent List for both consisted of 36 items.
• The residuary powers were vested with the Governor-General.
• The Act abolished the Dyarchy in the Provinces and introduced 'Provincial Autonomy'.
• It provided for the adoption of Dyarchy at the Centre.
• Introduced bicameralism in 6 out of 11 Provinces.
• These six Provinces were Assam, Bengal, Bombay, Bihar, Madras and the United Province.

Indian Independence Act of 1947
• Till 1947, the Government of India functioned under the provisions of the 1919 Act only, the provisions of 1935 Act relating to Federation and Dyarchy were never implemented.
• The Executive Council provided by the 1919 Act continued to advice the Governor-General till 1947.
• It declared India as an Independent and Sovereign State.
• Established responsible Governments at both the Centre and the Provinces.
• Designated the Governor-General of India and the Provincial Governors as the Constitutional Heads (nominal heads).
• It assigned dual functions (Constituent and Legislative) to the Constituent Assembly and declared this dominion legislature as a sovereign body.

Framing of The Constitution of India

• The Constitution of India was framed and adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India.
• The Constituent Assembly was set up in November 1946 as per the Cabinet Mission Plan of 1946.
• The members were elected indirectly by the Provincial Assemblies in the ratio of one member per one million population.
• There were a total of 389 members in the Constituent Assembly of which 296 were elected by the members of the Provincial Assemblies and the rest were nominated by thejMncely States.
• Its first meeting was held on 9th December 1946, with Sachidanand Sinha as the interim President.
• On 11th December 1946, Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected as the President of the Constituent Assembly.
• The historic 'Objective Resolution' was moved in the Constituent Assembly by Pt. Jawahar Lai Nehru on 13th December 1946.
• The Constituent Assembly formed 13 important committees for framing the Constitution.
• The Drafting Committee was appointed on 29 August 1947, with Dr. B.R. Ambedkar as the Chairman.
• The first draft of the Constitution was prepared in October 1947.
• The Draft Constitution of India prepared by the Drafting Committee was submitted to the

Phases of Indian Constitution
i) 1 st Phase: As Constituent Assembly under the limitations of Cabinet Mission Plan from 6th September 1946 to 14th August 1947.
ii) 2nd Phase: As Constituent Assembly, a sovereign body. Provisional Parliament from 15th August 1947 to 26th November 1949,
iii) 3rd Phase: As a Provisional Parliament from 27th November 1949 to March 1952. President of the Assembly on 21 February l948.
• The clause-by-clause consideration of the Draft Constitution was taken up between 15 NovemberT948 and 17 October 1949.
• On 26 November 1949, the people of India through the Constituent Assembly adopted, enacted and gave to themselves the Constitution of India.
• The Constitution was finally signed in by the members of the Constituent Assembly on 24 January 1950, which was the last day of the Assembly.
• The Constitution came into full operation with effect from 26 January 1950.
• During this period the Constituent Assembly acted as a 'temporary Parliament' [15 August 1947- 26 November 1949].
• The Constitution was approved by the members and was signed in by 284 members of the Constituent Assembly.
• It is considered to be the second lengthiest Constitution in the world after the Constitution of Yugoslavia.
• Originally, it had 22 parts, 395 articles and 8 schedules.
• The Constituent Assembly toijk 2 years, 11 months and 18 days to frame the Constitution.
The demand for the Constituent Assembly to draft the Constitution of India was, for the first time, raised by the Congress in 1935. The British Government accepted this demand, for the first time, in the 'August Offer' of 1940.
The seats were allocated to three communities-Muslims, Sikhs and General-in proportion to their population. The Mountbatten Plan of June 3, 1947 announced the partition of the country and a separate Constituent Assembly for the proposed State of Pakistan. Consequently the members of the Constituent Assembly representing those areas which were to be included in Pakistan, East Bengal, North-West Frontier Province (NWFP), West Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, and Sylhet district of Assam, were no more members of the Constituent Assembly of India. North-West Frontier Province and Sylhet decided through a referendum to remain with Pakistan.
Therefore, the membership of the Constituent Assembly for India was reduced to 299 after partition.
The first meeting of the Constituent Assembly was boycotted by the Muslim League. Shri. B.N. Rau was appointed as the Legal Advisor of the Constituent Assembly.

Drafting Committee of Constitution
Chairman: Dr BR Ambedkar Members
1. N Gopalswami Ayyangar
2. Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyar
3. KM Munshi
4. Mohammed Sadullah
5. BL Mittar (replaced by N Madhav Rao)
6. DP Khaitan (who died in 1948 and was replaced by TT Krishnamochari)

Dr. B.R. Ambedkar is rightly regarded as the 'Father of the Constitution of India'. According to Article 394, provisions relating to the citizenship elections, provisional Parliament and temporary and transitional provisions contained in Articles 5, 6, 7, 8,9, 60,324,366,367,379,380,388,391, 392 and 393 came into force on the day of adoption (i.e. 26 November 1949) of the Constitution and the remaining provisions of the Constitution came into being on the day of the commencement (i.e. 26 January 1950) of the Constitution.
According to Article 395, the Government of India Act of 1935 and the Indian Independence Act of 1947 got replaced with the commencement of the Constitution of India.

Committees of the Constituent Assembly
The Constituent Assembly appointed 22 committees to deal with different tasks of Constitution-making. Out of these, 10 were on procedural affairs and 12 on substantive affairs. These were as follows: Committees on Procedural Affairs
1. Steering Committee (Chairman: Dr K M Munshi)
2. Rules of Procedure Committee (Chairman: Dr Rajendra Prasad)
3. House Committee
4. Hindi Translation Committee
5. Urdu Translation Committee
6. Finance and Staff Committee
7. Press Gallery Committee
8. Committee on the effect of Indian Independence Act of 1947
9. Orders of Business Committee
10. Credentials Committee

Committees on Substantive Affairs
1. Drafting Committee (Chairman: Dr B R Ambedkar)
2. Committee for Negotiating with States (Chairman: Dr Rajendra Prasad)
3. Committee on Chief Commissioners' Provinces
4. Union Constitution Committee (.Chairman: Jawaharlal Nehru)
5. Provincial Constitution Committee (Chairman: Sardar Patel)
6. Special Committee to Examine the Draft Constitution (Chairman: Sir Alladi Krishnaswamy Iyer)
7. Commission on Linguistic Provinces
8. Expert Committee on Financial Provisions
9. Ad-hoc Committee on National Flag
10. Union Powers Committee (Chairman: Jawaharlal Nehru)
11. Ad-hoc Committee on the Supreme Court
12. Committee on Fundamental Rights and Minorities (Chairman: Sardar Patel)

Different Sources of Our Constitution

January 26 was selected as the date of commencement of the Constitution of India because on this date in 1930, Indian people observed 'Independence day', following the resolution of 'Purna Swaraj' of the Congress session held in the midnight of December 31, 1929 at Lahore.
• The founding fathers of our Constitution had before them the accumulated experience from the working of all the known constitutions of the world, and were aware of the difficulties faced in the working of those constitutions.
• Hence, besides incorporating some provisions from the other constitutions, a number of provisions were included to avoid some of the difficulties experienced in the working of these constitutions.
• This is an important reason for making our Constitution the lengthiest and the most comprehensive of all the written constitutions of the world.
• The most profound influence was exercised by the Government of India Act of 1935, the federal scheme, office of governor, power of federal judiciary, emergency powers etc were drawn from this Act. The British practice influenced the lawmaking procedures, rule of law, system of single citizenship, besides, of course, the model of a parliamentary government. The US Constitution inspired details on the independence of judiciary, judicial review, fundamental rights, and the removal of Supreme Court and High Court judges. The Irish Constitution was the source of the Directive Principles, method of Presidential elections, and the nomination of members of Rajya Sabha by the President. From the Canadian Constitution was taken the idea of a federation with a strong Centre, and placing residuary powers with the Centre. The Weimar Constitution of Germany was the source of provisions concerning the suspension of fundamental rights during emergency. The idea of a Concurrent List was taken from the Australian Constitution.

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