Directive Principles of State Policy
• Articles 36 to 51 deal with the provisions of the Directive Principles which are contained in Part IV of the Constitution.
• This novel feature of the Constitution has been adopted from the Constitution of the Ireland.
• This concept is the latest development in the Constitutional Governments throughout the world, with the growing acceptance of a 'Welfare State'.
• The Directive Principles of the Constitution of India are a unique blend of Socialism, Gandhism, Western liberalism, and the ideals of the Indian freedom movement.
• They are in the nature of directions or instructions to the State.
• Article 36 clearly directs the State to secure and protect a social order which stands for the welfare of the people.
• Article 37 says that Directive Principles are not justiciable but are fundamental to the Governance of the Country, and the State has the duty in applying the Directive Principles of State Policies (DPSPs).
• If they are not acted upon by the State, no one can move the Courts.
• The reason for making the DPSPs explicitly unjusticiable are that they require resources which the State may not have at present.
• These principles can be classified under the following categories:

The Socialist Principles
• Article 38: To secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people. ;
• Article 39: To strive to minimise inequalities of income.
• Article 39 (b): Ownership and control of material resources of the community shall be so distributed so as to subserve the common good.
• Article 39 (d): Equal pay for equal work.
• Article 39(e): Health and strength of workers, and the tender age of children must not be abused.
• Article 39A: Equal justice and free legal aid.
• Article 42: Provision of just and humane conditions for work and maternity relief.
• Article 43 A: Participation of workers in the management of the industries.
The Gandhian Principles
• Article 40: Organization of Village Panchayats.
• Article 46: Promotion of educational and economic interests of the SCs, the STs and the other weaker sections of the society.
• Article 48: Organization of agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines to prohibit the slaughter of cows, calves and other milch and draught animals.
• Article 43: To promote cottage industry.
• Article 47: To bring about the prohibition of intoxicating drinks and drugs that are injurious to health.
The Western Liberal Principles
• Article 44: Uniform Civil Code for the citizens.
• Article 45: Provide free and compulsory education for children below 14 years.
• Article 50: Separation of Judiciary from Executive.
• Article 51: To promote international peace and amity.
Implementation of DPSPs
• Since the commencement of the Constitution, there have been a number of legislations to implement the DPSPs.
• In fact, the very first Amendment Act was for implementing land reforms.
• It was followed by the 4th, 17th, 25th, 42nd and 44th Amendment Acts, The 73rd Constitution Amendment Act (1992) is in pursuit of implementing Art. 40.
• There have been several factory legislations to make the conditions of work humane for the workers.
• Promotion of cottage industries has been one of the main aspects of the economic policy of the government and there exists the Khadi and Village Industries Commission for the purpose.
• The government's position as regards the uniform civil code (UCC) is that the matter

Directives in other parts of the Constitution(Except part IV)

Article 350 A: It enjoins every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for the instructions in the mother tongue at the primary stage to children of linguistic minority areas.
Article 351: It enjoins the Union to promote the spread of Hindi Language so that it may serve as a medium of expression of all the elements of the composite culture of India.
Article 335: It says that the claims of SC/ST shall be taken into consideration, consistently with the maintenance of efficiency of administration, in the making of appointments to services and posts in connection with affairs of the Union or of a State.


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