From Civil Service Examination 2011, Preliminary Examination would consist of two papers- Paper I and Paper II. 

The syllabus and pattern of the Preliminary Examination would be as under :

(Paper 1) (200 marks) - Duration : Two hrs.

  • Current events  of national and international importance

  • History of India  and Indian national movement

  • Indian and World Geography- physical, social, economic geography of India and the world

  • Indian Polity and governance – constitution, political system, panchayati raj, public policy, Rights issues, etc.

  • Economic and social development – sustainable development, poverty, inclusion, demographics, social sector initiatives etc.

  • General issues on environmental ecology, bio-diversity and climate change-that  donot require subject specialization

  • General science.

(Paper II) (200 marks) – Duration : Two hrs

  • Comprehension

  • Interpersonal skills including communication skills

  • Logical reasoning and analytical ability

  • Decision making and problem solving

  • General mental ability

  • Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude etc. (Class X level), Data interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency etc. –Class X level)

  • English language comprehension skills (Class X level)

     

Index

Announcements -

  1. Online Coaching for Group 1 Mains
  2. Register for Online Coaching for Group 1 Mains
  3. Subscribe for SMS alerts 
  4. Download Group 1 Syllabus in pdf format 
  5. Reference Books for Group 1 Mains
  6. Download Free Material for Group 1 Prelims including Bit Bank, Model Papers and Previous Papers
  7. Download Free Material for Group 1 Prelims Torrent File
  8. Free Download 6th to 12th Class NCERT Text Books (Torrent)
  9. Group 1 Preliminary Exam Date
  10. Plan of Preparation
  11. Group 1
  12. Download Group 1 2010 Hall Tickets 
  13. NCERT Textbooks online
  14. Examination Schedule as on 25th September, 2009
  15. Thanks Giving
  16. New Look
  17. Links to Government of India Sites
  18. 2009 Civil Services Final Results
  19. 2010 Civil Services Preliminary Exam Results

General -
  1. Unity of India
  2. List of Phobias
  3. Earth - Factfile
  4. Moon - Factfile
  5. Vital Data of India
  6. Important World Days
  7. Important International Years
  8. International Years
  9. Armed Forces Tribunal
  10. Pramod Muthalik caught on tape 
  11. National Committees 
  12. Top 10 Largest Countries
  13. Top 10 Most Populous Countries
  14. Common Wealth Games 2010
  15. Ayodhya Verdict

Economy -
  1. An introduction to Macroeconomics
  2. Economic Agents
  3. Emergence of MacroEconomics 
  4. Some Basic Concepts of MacroEconomics  
  5. National Income and Methods of Calculating National Income
  6. Product Method (or) Value Added Method of calculating National Income
  7. Expenditure Method
  8. Income Method
  9. Some Macroeconomic Identities
  10. Goods and Prices
  11. GDP and Welfare
  12. Money and Banking - An Introduction
  13. Functions of Money
  14. Demand for Money
  15. Supply of Money
  16. Narrow and Broad Money
  17. Money creation by the Banking System
  18. Monetary Policy and RBI
  19. Income Determination
  20. The short run fixed price analysis of the Product
  21. The Government - Functions and Scope
  22. Components of Budget 
  23. Revenue Receipts
  24. Revenue Expenditure 
  25. The Capital Account
  26. Measures of Government Deficit
  27. Fiscal Policy
  28. Public Debt
  29. Indian Economy
  30. Open Economy Macroeconomics
  31. The Balance of Payments
  32. The Foreign Exchange Market
  33. Determination of Income in an Open Economy
  34. Economy - Important terms and Definitions
  35. A simple Economy
  36. Central problems of an Economy
  37. Organisation of Economic Activities
  38. Positive and Normative Economics
  39. Microeconomics and Macroeconomics
  40. Industrial Policies of India
  41. Indian Planning and Industries

History -
  1. Aryans in Protohistoric India
  2. Indus Valley Civilization and Aryans
  3. Introduction to Ancient Indian History
  4. Arts in Ancient India
  5. Languages in Ancient India
  6. Literature in Ancient India
  7. Position of Women in Ancient India
  8. Education in Ancient India
  9. Mathematics in Ancient India
  10. Caste System in Ancient India
  11. Basis for Periodization
  12. Sources of Prehistory
  13. Food Gathering Communities
  14. Food Producing Communities
  15. Neolithic Age
  16. Iron Age
  17. Chalcolithic Phase
  18. Farming Communities
  19. Indus Valley Civilization
  20. Vedic Civilization
  21. Pre-Mauryan Period
  22. The Mauryan Period
  23. Post-Mauryan Period
  24. Indo-Greeks
  25. Sunga Dynasty
  26. Kushan Dynasty
  27. Satavahana Dynasty
  28. Sangam Literature
  29. Religions in Ancient India
  30. Jainism
  31. Buddhism
  32. Sources of Gupta Rule
  33. Gupta Administration
  34. Gupta Culture
  35. Economic Conditions in Gupta Period
  36. Harshavardhana
  37. The rise of Cholas
  38. Cholas
  39. The Pallavas
  40. The Palas
  41. The Pratiharas
  42. The Rashtrakutas
  43. The Hoyasalas
  44. The Cheras
  45. The Chalukyas of Badami


Polity -
  1. Finance Ministers of India 
  2. Railway Ministers of India
  3. Speakers of Indian Parliament
  4. Indian Constitution - Borrowed Elements
  5. Nature of Indian Constitution - 1
  6. Nature of Indian Constitution - 2
  7. Nature of Indian Constitution - 3
  8. Constitution of India - Federal or Unitary ?
  9. Development of Indian Constitution
  10. Salient Features of Indian Constitution - 1
  11. Salient features of Indian Constitution - 2
  12. Preamble
  13. Fundamental Rights - 1
  14. Fundamental Rights - 2 
  15. Directive Principles of State Policy - 1
  16. Directive Principles of State Policy - 2
  17. Directive Principles of State Policy - 3
  18. Purpose and significance of Directive Principles
  19. Relation between Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles - 1
  20. Relation between Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles - 2
  21. Relation between Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles - 3
  22. Fundamental Duties
Current Affairs -
  1. October 1 - 15, 2008 - National Events
  2. October 1 - 15, 2008 - International Events
  3. October 1 - 15, 2008 - Economy
  4. October 1 - 15, 2008 - Science and technology
  5. October 1 - 15, 2008 - Persons in News
  6. October 1 - 15, 2008 - Awards
  7. October 1 - 15, 2008 - Sports & Miscl.

S&T -
  1. Development of Science and Technology in India 
  2. Some Important Terminology in Digestive System

Geography -
  1. Mineral Resources of India 
  2. International Boundaries of India
  3. Indian Railway Zones

Previous Papers & Model Papers -
  1. Civil Services Preliminary 2005 Question Paper with Answers
  2. Civil Services Preliminary 2009 Question Paper with answers.
  3. Civil Services Preliminary 2010 Question Paper with Answers
  4. Civil Services Preliminary 2010 History Paper with Answers
  5. Civil Services Preliminary 2010 Public Administration Paper
  6. Group 1 Prelims Model Papers
  7. Group 1 Preliminary 2010 Question Paper with Answers

Free Audio Lessons -
  1. Introduction to Indian History
  2. Prehistoric Age
  3. Indus Valley Civilization
  4. Vedic Civilization
  5. The Mahajanapadas
  6. Magadha Imperialism
  7. Religious Reforms in Ancient India
  8. Jainism in a nutshell
  9. Jainism in detail
  10. Buddhism in a nutshell
  11. Buddhism in detail
  12. Gandhara School of Art
  13. Mathura School of Art
  14. Amaravati School of Art

    Fundamental Duties of India are guaranteed by the Constitution of India in Part IV. These fundamental duties are identified as the moral obligations that actually help in upholding the spirit of nationalism as well as to support the harmony of the nation. These duties are designed concerning the individuals and the nation. However, these fundamental duties are not legally enforceable. Furthermore, the citizens are morally obligated by the constitution to perform these duties. These Fundamental Duties were added by the 42nd Amendment Act in 1976. Article 51-A of the constitution provides ten Fundamental Duties of the citizen. These duties can be classified accordingly as relating to the environment, duties towards the state and the nation and also towards self. However, the fundamental duties are non-justiciable, and the main purpose of incorporating is to encourage the sense of patriotism among the country`s citizens.

    The international instruments such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights include reference of such fundamental duties. These Fundamental Duties are such commitments that expand to the citizens as well as the state at large. According to the Fundamental Duties all the citizens should respect the national symbols as well as the constitution of the country. The fundamental duties of the land also intend to uphold the right of equality of all individuals, defend the environment and the public property, to build up scientific temper, to disown violence, to struggle towards excellence and to offer compulsory education. In addition, the 11th Fundamental Duty of the country was added in the year 2002 by the 86th constitutional amendment. It states that `every citizen who is a parent or guardian, to offer opportunities for education to his child or, as the case may be, ward between the age of six and 14 years`.

    Fundamental Duties of India are as follows -

  1. To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem;




  2. To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;




  3. To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;




  4. To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;




  5. To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;




  6. To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;




  7. To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures;




  8. To develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform;




  9. To safeguard public property and to abjure violence;




  10. To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavor and achievement.

  11. The following are the Fundamental Duties prescribed by the Constitution of the nation under PART [IV-A] to its every citizen :


    (a)
    To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem.
    (b)
    To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom.
    (c)
    To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.
    (d)
    To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so.
    (e)
    To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women.
    (f)
    To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.
    (g)
    To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures.
    (h)
    To develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform.
    (i)
    To safeguard public property and to abjure violence.
    (j)
    To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavor and achievement.


    AN EVALUATIONOF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FUNDAMENTALS RIGHTS & DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES UNDER CONSTITUTION

    A review of the present study makes it explicti clear that the concet of social justive which is enshrined
    in the preamble of our Constitution contains the aspiration of the people of India. This preambulory
    message of justices has been trnslated in various provisiona of Part III & IV of the constitution. Both of
    them have a common grounding. In fact both these set of rights owe their origin to the feedom struggle
    waged by the Indians against the British Regime to protect Indian culture, Philosophy and system. The
    main object of the British rule in India was the overall exploitation of the country and its people. It
    caused disintegration of all kinds of Indian system, society and economy. This state of affairs led to the
    thinking in the minds of the Indians that socio‐economic conditions of the people can not be improved
    unless there is change in Government and its Administrative set up. It led the public to realize that the
    solution lies in Political freedom and Indianization of National set up. To fulfill the pledges and
    commitments, hopes and aspirations of pre‐independence era, the constitution made clear provisions
    for fundamental rights and directive principles of a state policy. Having been impressed with the
    fundamental character of directive principles Dr. B.N. Rao, the constitution Advisor for saw the danger
    of a conflict between the Directive Principles and fundamental rights. He therefore suggested that a
    provision should be incorporated in the constitution to make it clear that no Law by State in discharge of
    its obligation contained in directives shall be deemed to be invalid merely because it contravenesthe
    provisions of fundamental rights. But the founding fathers did not accept this proposal because they
    thought that on a fair reading of the entire constitution it was amply clear that there exists no conflict
    between them. They were further said to be complementary and supplementary to each other.
    Ragarding the nature and significance of these principles, both the views one, levellin them as pious
    wishes and the other, considering them as most inportant, prevailed in the Assembly, Framing
    constitution. Directive principles were not made enforceable in the Court of Law. But in the Court of
    people while the fundamental rights made enforceable in Court of Law.

    Now after a period of about 40 years of constitutional experience era amy ask the question how
    far the fundamental rights and directive principles have succeeded in playing its role forward the
    achievement of the constitutional objectivge of searching social justive to the masses and what steps
    have been taken by the Executive, Legislature and Judiciary in respect of their fulfillment.
    Various constitutional amendments (1, 4, 17, 25, 34, 39, 40, 42, 44 etc.) passed by the
    Parliament in India for giving effect to the Directive prijndiples thave made it clear that the State always
    regarded Directive principles as Fundamental in the governance of the Country. Other Legislative and
    Excutive measures taken in the past 40 years clearly indicated that the State providing social justice to
    the people. An apprisal of various measures taken inm the field of Eduction health, living standard,
    employment, agriculture, Trade and business, Science and Technology, public sercices and other social
    services pursued in the past years shows that a good amount of progress has been made in improving
    the conditions of the starving millions. This shows that the directive principles have played a very
    significant role in implementation of social justice to the ordinary and less privileged class of our society.
    It goes without saying that a great deal has been done towards ameliorating the condition of the
    poeasantry, the labour, the exploitedand the under privileged by introducing agrarian reforms by
    various relief acts by undertaking several important prospects and by initiating several social wefare
    schemes. Likewise fundamental rights have also played vital role in the preservation, substantial
    equaties, various feedoms, liberty and other civil and political rights. Unfortunately several factors
    caused confronation between fundamental rights and directive principles. Marriage between two could
    not last long. The fear or danger of B.N. Rau, The constitutional Advisor gradually became apprehensive
    and it was felt that there exist conflict between two. Hence it may be recalled that soon after the
    comming into force of the constitution, the judiciary entered into a false dilemma of conflict of States
    relationship between Fundamental Rights directive principles.
    Under our constitution the Judiciary has great role to play in interpreting the social and other
    progressive Legislations passed by the State to implement the policies in the directive principles. The
    questions is : Has the judiciary succeeded in discharging the constitutional obligation or has it created
    any obstacle in the implementation social and progressive legislation enacted on state in furtherance of
    directive principles. No clear cut answer can be given because apex court the land in the case of Champa
    Karane Dorairajan propounded the theory of subordination of directive Principles to Fundamental rights.
    However, a new light was given to the hopes and aspirations of the people by the Judiciary inKeral
    eeducation Bill & M.H. – Quareshi cases by the coctrine of harmoneous construction. But the true and
    full hopes could not crystallize into reality because of the various pronouncements of the court in
    property and other matters (Chiranjee Lal's Kameshwar Singh's, Subodh Gopal's, Vara velu, metal
    Corporation's, Santi Lal Mangal Das's cases & Golak Nath's cases). IN order to render these decisions
    ineffective, Parlieament enacted a number o amendment to the constitution to carry forward the object
    of social justice of constitution.
    Similarly the supreme court in early days conceded ............. constituentpower to Parliament in
    Sankare Prasad and Sajjan Singh cases. But later in Golak Nath case the Court held that Praliament had
    no power to amend the fundamental rights. In Bank nationalization and privy purse cases Court took the
    narrow and strict viewl and attached to much sanctity to fundamental rights. A new era of amendment
    was opened by the parliament to nullify the effect of these decisions. Constituent power was restored to
    the Parliament and srticle 31C was added to give primacy to the directive‐s conrtained in Article 39(b) &
    (c) over Article 14, 19 and 31. Here at this time supreme court responeed well to the clarion call of the
    time by overruling Golak Nath in Keshwa Nath Bharti. The court observed that Parliament can change
    and part of constitution except basic feathres of the constitution. The court also kept the power of
    examining the relation and true nexus between the enactment (Law) and the principles to be
    implemented. This generated hope and fear both in the mind of people. But in the following year the
    Supreme Court showed little bit more concern towards directive principles. While recognising the
    importance, it observed in Numbai Kamgar Sabha's case that where two judicial choices are available
    (AIR 1976 S.C. 1455) the construction in conformity to the social Philosphy of part IV has preference. The
    similar were the views in the case of State of Kerla V/s N.M. Thomas (AIR 1970 SC 490).
    Encouraged by these Judicial pronouncements and realizian the need of the time Parliament
    passed constitutional (No. 42) Amendment Act 1976 and again amended Article 31C so as to give effect
    to all or any of the Directive Principles laid down in Part IV. It established the supremancy of directive
    Priciple over Fundamental rights, The opinion of Dr. B.N. Rao, Conxtitutional Advisor ws adopted and
    accepted after 34 years, It shifted the power from Raj to Republic. Further Parliament by enacting the
    44th. Constitutional amendment Act 1978 repealed the right to property as a fundamental right and
    declared it simply to be a simple constitutinal right under Article 300 A.
    But the hopes generated by the Court Parliament were belied by the decision Minerva mill case
    in which Article 31C was assailed and Judicial trend set up in Mumbai Kamgar Sabha was changed. But a
    ray of hopes emertged out of the dissenting opinion of Justice. P.N. Bhagwati who uphelt the amendeed
    Article 31C and said that the amendment in Article 31C far frrom damaging the basic feature of the
    constitution re‐enforces and strengthens it by giving fundamental importance to the right of the
    Members of the community as against the rights of a few individuals. The dissenting opionion of Justice
    P.N. Bhagwati prevaild in 1983. In the case of Sanjeeva Coke mfg. Co. Vs Bharat cooking Coal Ltd. the
    majority view of Minerva mills case was severly criticised but not overlooked. The opinion of woman
    Roa's case also did not make any thing clear but indirectly fovoured the Directive principle.
    The repeal of property right from the list of Fundamental rights has made this right to property
    more fundamental more vital and more powerful than it was even before just dull to certain Technical
    lapse in the Legislative drafting. Now the entire condition is hotch potch. Nothing is clear. It is
    interesting to point out here that barring from Status consoversy between fundamental rights and
    directive principles where the Legislature and Judiciary entered into a boxing ring, the court has shown
    its judicial wisdom by upholding certain Legislation on the ground that directive principles are
    reasonalbel restrictions on Fundamental Rights and the law giving effect to them are in public interest.
    The concipt of reasonable restrictions runs like a golden thread through entire Fabric of the constitution.
    We hope that the courts shall do needful and continue to do needful also infuture. The clouds of
    uncertainty shall be made clear and pulled into water and fres breath shall be given to the ideas of the
    constitution for harmoneous human notes. But how it all shall be carried into practical form at the
    Platform of the Indian Society, has to be sun with catious.

    Relationship of directive principles of state policy with fundamental rights:


    There is no conflict between Fundamental Right (FR) and Directive Principles of State Policy (DP).  Both are important to achieve the objectives of the Constitution.  But what will be the legal position if a law is enacted to enforce a DP which violates the FR.  To understand the correct position, we may look into the various stages of development

    In the initial stages, if any law was passed giving effect to FR but violating DP then DP was totally ignored.  In State of Madras  v. Champakam Dorairajan,  it was held that the DP cannot override the ER.  The DP has to conform and to run as subsidiary to the FR. Subsequently,  the Supreme Court applied the principle of harmonious construction by which whenever any law involves with FR and DP, an attempt was made to give effect to both, to the extent possible, and when it become impossible. DP was ignored. 

    Subsequently, Article 31-C was inserted in the Constitution of India by an amendment, which provided that any law passed  to give effect to the directive principles of prevention of concentration of economic wealth to the common determent (MRTP Act) cannot be challenged even it violates Article 14 or 19. Subsequently, Article 31-C was amended and its scope was widened in the sense that any law passed to give effect to any DP cannot be challenged even if it violates FR under Article 14 or 19.

    In Keshavanand Bharti v. Union of India, the court observed that the FR and DP are meant to supplement each other.  It can well be said that the DP prescribes the goals to be attained and FR lays down the means to achieve them. 

    Therefore the present position is that the violations of FR is legally enforceable but if it is due to any law giving effect to DP, it can not be enforced as far as Article 14 to 19 are concerned.


    Relation Between Fundamental Rights and Directive Pinciples:

    • The Supreme Court in various cases has evolved a 'Doctrine or Theory of Harmonization'.
    • It has further stated that both the Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles are in fact supplementary to each other and together constitute an integrated scheme.
    • It has also held that where this is not possible, the Fundamental Rights shall prevail over the Directive Principles.
    • The present position is that only Article 39(b) and Article 39(c) can be given precedence over Article 14, 19 and not all the Directive Principles.
    peacekeeping operations of the UN (Somalia in 1992-93; Sierra Leone in 2000); pioneering and leading the Non-Aligned Movement and so on.

    Difference between FR & DPSP 
    • The Fundamental Rights provide the foundation of political democracy in India whereas the Directives spell out the character of social and economic democracy in India.
    • Fundamental Rights are in the form of negative obligations of the State i.e. injunctions against the actions of the State. The Directive Principles are, on the contrary, positive obligations of the State towards the citizen.
    • Whereas the Fundamental Rights are justiciable, the Directive Principles are non¬justiciable.

    Importance of the DPSP 
    • Article 37 declares Directive Principles as fundamental in the Governance of the Country.
    • Since the Government is answerable to the people, the Directive Principles act as a sign post to all succeeding Governments.
    • The Directive Principles provide the yardstick for assessing the successes or failures of these Governments.


    Uniform Civil Code: 
    • By uniform civil code, it is meant that all sections of society irrespective of their religion shall be treated equally according to a national civil code, which shall be uniformly applicable to all.
    • Civil code covers areas like marriage, divorce, maintenance, inheritance, succession of property and adoption.
    • Uniform civil code (UCC) has been provided under Art 44 of the Constitution as a directive principle.
    • It will enhance the status of women and therefore, it is vitally desired to achieve the empowerment of women.
    • Articles 25 and 26 guarantee right to freedom of religion and UCC is not opposed to secularism or will not violate these articles.
    • Article 44 is based on the concept that there is no necessary connection between religion and personal law in a civilised society.
    • Marriage, succession and like matters are of secular nature and, therefore, law can regulate them.
    • The UCC will not and shall not result in interference of one's religious beliefs relating, mainly to maintenance, succession and inheritance. But in matters of inheritance, right to property, maintenance and succession, there will be a common law.
    • Article 25 confers right to practice and profess religion, while Article 44 divests religion from social relations and personal law.
    • According to Justice R.M. Sahai " Freedom of religion is the core of our culture. But religious practices, violative of human rights and dignity and sacerdotal suffocation of essentially civil and material freedoms are not autonomy but oppression. "

    Earlier Supreme Court verdicts Shah Bano case
    • In Mohammad Ahmed Khan v. Shah Bano Begum, popularly known as the Shah Bano case, a penurious Muslim woman claimed for maintenance from her husband under Section 125 of the Code of Criminal Procedure after she was given triple talaq from him.
    • The Supreme Court held that the Muslim woman have a right to get maintenance from her husband under Section 125.
    • After this decision, nationwide discussions, meetings, and agitation were held.
    • The then Rajiv Gandhi led Government overturned the Shah Bano case decision by way of Muslim Women (Right to Protection on Divorce) Act, 1986 which curtailed the right of a Muslim woman for maintenance under Section 125 of the Code of Criminal Procedure.

    Sarla Mudgal case
    • The second instance in which the Supreme Court again directed the government of Article 44 was in the case of Sarla Mudgal v. Union of India.
    • In this case, the question was whether a Hindu husband, married under the Hindu law, by embracing Islam, can solemnise second marriage.
    • The Court held that a Hindu marriage solemnised under the Hindu law can only be dissolved on any of the grounds specified under the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955.
    • Conversion to Islam and marrying again would not, by itself, dissolve the Hindu marriage under the Act. And, thus, a second marriage solemnised after converting to Islam would be an offense under Section 494 of the Indian Penal Code.

    John Vallamatton case• The priest from Kerala, John Vallamatton filed a writ petition in the year 1997 stating that Section 118 of the Indian Succession Act was discriminatory against the Christians as it impose unreasonable restrictions on their donation of property for religious or charitable purpose by will.
    • The Supreme Court struck down this Section in 2003 declaring it to be unconstitutional.
    Thus, the apex court has on all these instances directed the government to realise the directive principle enshrined in our Constitution and asked to implement UCC as early as possible.

    Directive Principles of State Policy
    • Articles 36 to 51 deal with the provisions of the Directive Principles which are contained in Part IV of the Constitution.
    • This novel feature of the Constitution has been adopted from the Constitution of the Ireland.
    • This concept is the latest development in the Constitutional Governments throughout the world, with the growing acceptance of a 'Welfare State'.
    • The Directive Principles of the Constitution of India are a unique blend of Socialism, Gandhism, Western liberalism, and the ideals of the Indian freedom movement.
    • They are in the nature of directions or instructions to the State.
    • Article 36 clearly directs the State to secure and protect a social order which stands for the welfare of the people.
    • Article 37 says that Directive Principles are not justiciable but are fundamental to the Governance of the Country, and the State has the duty in applying the Directive Principles of State Policies (DPSPs).
    • If they are not acted upon by the State, no one can move the Courts.
    • The reason for making the DPSPs explicitly unjusticiable are that they require resources which the State may not have at present.
    • These principles can be classified under the following categories:

    The Socialist Principles
    • Article 38: To secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people. ;
    • Article 39: To strive to minimise inequalities of income.
    • Article 39 (b): Ownership and control of material resources of the community shall be so distributed so as to subserve the common good.
    • Article 39 (d): Equal pay for equal work.
    • Article 39(e): Health and strength of workers, and the tender age of children must not be abused.
    • Article 39A: Equal justice and free legal aid.
    • Article 42: Provision of just and humane conditions for work and maternity relief.
    • Article 43 A: Participation of workers in the management of the industries.
    The Gandhian Principles
    • Article 40: Organization of Village Panchayats.
    • Article 46: Promotion of educational and economic interests of the SCs, the STs and the other weaker sections of the society.
    • Article 48: Organization of agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines to prohibit the slaughter of cows, calves and other milch and draught animals.
    • Article 43: To promote cottage industry.
    • Article 47: To bring about the prohibition of intoxicating drinks and drugs that are injurious to health.
    The Western Liberal Principles
    • Article 44: Uniform Civil Code for the citizens.
    • Article 45: Provide free and compulsory education for children below 14 years.
    • Article 50: Separation of Judiciary from Executive.
    • Article 51: To promote international peace and amity.
    Implementation of DPSPs
    • Since the commencement of the Constitution, there have been a number of legislations to implement the DPSPs.
    • In fact, the very first Amendment Act was for implementing land reforms.
    • It was followed by the 4th, 17th, 25th, 42nd and 44th Amendment Acts, The 73rd Constitution Amendment Act (1992) is in pursuit of implementing Art. 40.
    • There have been several factory legislations to make the conditions of work humane for the workers.
    • Promotion of cottage industries has been one of the main aspects of the economic policy of the government and there exists the Khadi and Village Industries Commission for the purpose.
    • The government's position as regards the uniform civil code (UCC) is that the matter

    Directives in other parts of the Constitution(Except part IV)

    Article 350 A: It enjoins every State and every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for the instructions in the mother tongue at the primary stage to children of linguistic minority areas.
    Article 351: It enjoins the Union to promote the spread of Hindi Language so that it may serve as a medium of expression of all the elements of the composite culture of India.
    Article 335: It says that the claims of SC/ST shall be taken into consideration, consistently with the maintenance of efficiency of administration, in the making of appointments to services and posts in connection with affairs of the Union or of a State.


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