Ayodhya Verdict

The much awaited verdict on the dispute of Ram janmabhoomi Babri Manjid Case was given by the High Court of Allahabad. The 3-member bench included -

  1. Hon'ble Sibghat Ullah Khan ,J. 
  2. Hon'ble Sudhir Agarwal, J.
  3. Hon'ble Dharam Veer Sharma, J.  
Some of the questions which the Bench answered are,

1. Whether the disputed site is the birth place of Bhagwan Ram?

The disputed site is the birth place of Lord Ram. Place of birth is a juristic person and is a deity. It is personified as the spirit of divine worshipped as birth place of Lord Rama as a child. Spirit of divine ever remains present every where at all times for any one to invoke at any shape or form in accordance with his own aspirations and it can be shapeless and formless also.

2. Whether the disputed building was a mosque? When was it built? By whom?

The disputed building was constructed by Babar, the year is not certain but it was built against the tenets of Islam. Thus, it cannot have the character of a mosque.

3. Whether the mosque was built after demolishing a Hindu temple?

The disputed structure was constructed on the site of old structure after demolition of the same. The Archaeological Survey of India has proved that the structure was a massive Hindu religious structure.

4. Whether the idols were placed in the building on the night of December 22/23rd, 1949?

The idols were placed in the middle dome of the disputed structure in the intervening night of 22/23.12.1949.

5. Whether any of the claims for title is time barred?


O.O.S. No. 4 of 1989, the Sunni Central Board of Waqfs U.P., Lucknow and others Vs. Gopal Singh Visharad and others and O.O.S. No.3 of 1989, Nirmohi Akhara and Another Vs. Sri Jamuna Prasad Singh and others are barred by time.

6. What will be the status of the disputed site e.g. inner and outer courtyard?

It is established that the property in suit is the site of Janm Bhumi of Ram Chandra Ji and Hindus in general had the right to worship Charan, Sita Rasoi, other idols and other object of worship existed upon the property in suit. It is also established that Hindus have been worshipping the place in dispute as Janm Sthan i.e. a birth place as deity and visiting it as a sacred place of pilgrimage as of right since time immemorial.

After the construction of the disputed structure it is proved the deities were installed inside the disputed structure on 22/23.12.1949. It is also proved that the outer courtyard was in exclusive possession of Hindus and they were worshipping throughout and in the inner courtyard (in the disputed structure) they were also worshipping. It is also established that the disputed structure cannot be treated as a mosque as it came into existence against the tenets of Islam.






YOu canaccess the full verdict here.

Key Words : Ram Janmabhoomi, Babri Masjid, Babri Masjid demolition, Ayodhya, Ayodhya Case, Allahabad High court verdict.

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The Constitution of India lays down Directive Principles of State Policy. The policies are guidelines for the framing of laws by the government. These provisions are set out in Part IV of the Constitution. Similar to the Fundamental Duties, the directive principles are not enforceable by the courts. However, the principles on which they are based are fundamental guidelines for governance that the State is expected to apply in framing and passing laws. Thus it can be concluded that the Directive Principles of State Policy (DpSp) are guidelines to the central and state governments of India which are significant while framing laws and policies.

The principles of Directive Principles of State Policy are incorporated in the constitution of India based on the Directive Principles given in the Constitution of Ireland and also by the principles of Gandhism. The principles laid down are related to social justice, economic welfare, foreign policy, and legal and administrative matters. Moreover, these Directive principles are classified under the following categories: Gandhian, economic and socialistic, political and administrative, justice and legal, environmental, protection of monuments and peace and security.

According to the historical evidences, in 1919, the Rowlatt Acts gave extensive powers to the British government and police, and allowed indefinite arrest and detention of individuals, restrictions on public gatherings and intensive censorship of media and publications. All these led to public opposition and mass campaigns started demanding guaranteed civil freedoms, and limitations on government power. Thus the Directive Principles of State Policy in Irish constitution were looked upon by the people of India as an inspiration in order to independently handle complex social and economic challenges in the nation. The concept of these principles was augmented in 1928 by the Nehru Commission and in 1931 by the Indian National Congress. After India getting independence on 15 August 1947, the task of developing a constitution for the nation was undertaken by the Constituent Assembly of India. Hence, Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles of State Policy were included in the I Draft Constitution by the constituent assembly.

Directive Principles of State Policy aims at creating social and economic conditions so that the citizens can lead a good life. The social and economic democracy is constituted for the welfare state. Furthermore, the DpSp are essential for to curb the power of the government and they act as an instrument used to measure the performance of the government. Though the Directive Principles are not justiciable, they are fundamental in the governance of the country. It is the duty of the State to apply these principles in making laws. The DPSP helps the judiciary in deciding cases and also all executive agencies are guided by these principles.

The Directive Principles of State Policy laid down by the constitution puts forth that the State shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by promoting a social order in which social, economic and political justice is informed in all institutions of life. The State shall provide free legal aid in order to ensure equal opportunities for securing justice. The State shall also work for organisation of village panchayat and enable them to function as units of self-government. The State shall endeavour to provide the right to work, to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement, within the limits of economic capacity. According to the principles, the State aims for securing right to an adequate means of livelihood for all citizens to men and women and offer equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Moreover, the State works to prevent concentration of wealth and means of production in a few hands, and try to ensure that ownership and control of the material resources is distributed to best serve the common good.

Prevention of child abuse and exploitation of workers and ensuring living wage and proper working conditions for workers, with full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural activities are the principles of the Directive Principles of State Policy. The state aims at promotion of cottage industries in rural areas and secures a uniform civil code for all citizens. Children are provided free and compulsory education till they attain the age of 14 years. However, the Directive regarding education of children was added by the 86th Amendment Act of the constitution. Other directive principles provide that the state should aim to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. State should also organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines by improving breeds and prohibiting slaughter of cows, calves, other milch and draught cattle. Protection of monuments, places and objects of historic and artistic interest and national importance against destruction and damage, Protect and improvement of the environment and safeguarding the forests as well as the wild life of the country come under the directive principles. The 42nd Amendment Act, 1976 added the directive regarding protection of forests and wildlife. The directive principles also separate the judiciary from executive in public services. The principles provide that the State shall strive for the promotion and maintenance of international peace and security. 


Purpose of Directive Principles

Part IV of the constitution from Articles 36 to 51 lays down the Directive Principles of State Policy. These principles constitute a sort of moral supplement to the Fundamental Rights. The idea of incorporating the Directive Principles in the constitution was borrowed from the constitution of Ireland. The fundamental rights are negative in character. They only guarantee certain freedoms to the citizen against the encroachment by the Government. There is nothing positive in them that may promote the material and-6ocial welfare of the individual. There is nothing in them that may lead to the realization of the ideas of justice and equality enshrined in the preamble to the constitution. The purpose of the Directive Principles is to secure social and economic justice and equality of opportunity and status. Article 38 of the constitution states.

"The state shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may a social order in which justice, social, economic and political, shall inform all institutions of the national life. The state shall in particular minimize the inequalities in income, and Endeavour to eliminate inequalities in status, facilities and opportunities not only amongst individuals but among groups of people residing in different areas or engaged in different vocations.

The Directive Principles:

Article 39 of the constitution lays down "the following principles to be followed by the state.
The state shall, in particular, direct its policy towards securing -
  1. That the citizens, men and women equality, have the right to an adequate means to livelihood.
  2. That the ownership and control of the material resources of the community are so distributed as best to sub serve the common good:
  3. That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of production to the common detriment;
  4. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women:
  5. That the health and strength of workers, men and women, and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength.
  6. Those children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and again moral-and material abandonment.
Guidelines:
In addition to the above principles the following guidelines have been laid down:
  1. To secure equal justice by providing free legal aid to the poor and to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities;
  2. To organize village Panchayats and to endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self-Government:
  3. To secure the right to work, to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement, and other cases of undesired want;
  4. To make provision for security just and human conditions of work and for maternity relief.
  5. To secure to all workers, agricultural, industrial or otherwise, work aliving wage, conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities, and in particular to Endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas.
  6. To secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings, establishment of other organizations engaged in any industry.
  7. To secure for the citizens a unified civil code throughout the territory of India.
  8. To Endeavour to provide for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.
  9. To promote the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people and; in particular of the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and to protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation;
  10. To raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living of the people and improve public health and to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medical purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are' injurious- to health.
  11. To organize agriculture and animal husbandry on modern scientific lines and to take steps for preserving and improving the breeds and prohibiting the slaughter of cows, calves and other milch and draught cattle;
  12. To protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country;
  13. To protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest from spoliation, disfigurement, destruction, removal, disposal or export, as the case may be;
  14. To separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the state;
  15. To promote international peace and security, to maintain just and honorable relations between nations, to foster respect for International law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organized people with one .another and to encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration.
Sanction behind Directive Principles:

The Directive Principles are not enforceable by the courts and, if the government of the day fails to carry out these objectives, no court can make the government ensure them, yet these principles have been declared to be "Fundamental in the governance of the country and it shall be the duty of the state to apply these principles in making taws."

Article 355 of the constitution says: "It shall be the duty of the Union to ensure that the government of every state is carried on in accordance with the provisions of the constitution." There is no doubt that the Directive Principles constitute a part of the constitution. It is therefore, the duty of the Union to see that every state takes proper steps for implementing the Directive Principles. It can issue directions to states to implement the Directive Principles. If a state fails to comply with such directions issued by the union, it may apply Art. 365 against it. Art 365 says: "Where arty state has failed to comply with, or to give effect to, any directions given in the exercise of the executive power of the Union under any of the provisions of the constitution, it shall be lawful for the President to hold that a situation has arisen in which the government of the state, cannot be carried on in accordance with the-provisions of this constitution. It makes it clear that the Union Government has the power to get the Directive Principles implemented by the states.

However, the most important sanction behind the Directive Principles is political. As Dr. Ambedkar observed in the Constituent Assembly, "if any government ignores them, they will certainly have to answer for them before the electorate at the election time. The opposition can use it as a weapon to discredit the government on the ground that it’s Executive or Legislative; acts have been opposed to the Directive Principles.

Significance of the Directive Principles:

(1) Conscience of Constitution
In the words of justice Hegde and justice Mukherji, the Directive Principles constitute the Conscience of our constitution. Their purpose is to fix certain social and economic goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution. Through such a social revolution the constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the common man and to change the structure of our society. It aims at making the Indian masses free in the positive sense.

(2) Socialism
This is the age of socialism and welfare state. Our views about the purpose and functions of the state have completely changed. The old concept of the police state has been discarded. Now it is considered to be the duty of the state to interfere positively in the life of the society with a view to promoting economic, social and cultural welfare of the citizens. The Directive Principles enshrined in the constitution aim at giving effect to these modern social and political ideals.

(3) Minimizing Competitive Economy
The Directive Principles aim at minimizing the effects of competitive economy. If free competition is allowed to dominate life, the poor- are bound to go to the wall. Only the rich and the strong will survive. The Directive principles aim at promoting the spirit of cooperation and mutual aid in society so that every individual irrespective of his caste, creed, sex, birth etc. may get a chance to lead a decent human life.

(4) Non-violent Socio Economic Revolution
The most important thing about the Directive Principles is that they aim at bringing about a non-violent socio economic revolution in the country. This is the age of revolutionary upheavals. The masses are on the march everywhere. If exploitation of man by man is not eliminated, if social justice is not established by peaceful democratic methods, violent upheavals are bound to occur. If directive principles are implemented, there would be no need for a violent revolution.


PART IV
DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY

36. Definition
In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires, ‘‘the State’’ has the same meaning as in Part III.

37. Application of the principles contained in this Part
The provisions contained in this Part shall not be enforceable by any court, but the principles therein laid down are nevertheless fundamental in the governance of the country and it shall be the duty of the State to apply these principles in making laws.

38. State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people
(1) The State shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may a social order in which justice, social, economic and political, shall inform all the institutions of the national life.
(2) The State shall, in particular, strive to minimise the inequalities in income, and endeavour to eliminate inequalities in status, facilities and opportunities, not only amongst individuals but also amongst groups of people residing in different areas or engaged in different vocations.

39. Certain principles of policy to be followed by the State
The State shall, in particular, direct its policy towards securing
(a) that the citizens, men and women equally, have the right to an adequate means of livelihood;
(b) that the ownership and control of the material resources of the community are so distributed as best to subserve the common good;
(c) that the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of production to the common detriment;
(d) that there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women;
(e) that the health and strength of workers, men and women, and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength;
(f) that children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment.
39A. Equal justice and free legal aid
The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice, on a basis of equal opportunity, and shall, in particular, provide free legal aid, by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way, to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities.

40. Organisation of village panchayats
The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self-government.

41. Right to work, to education and to public assistance in certain cases
The State shall, within the limits of its economic capacity and development, make effective provision for securing the right to work, to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement, and in other cases of undeserved want.

42. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief
The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief.

43. Living wage, etc., for workers
The State shall endeavour to secure, by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way, to all workers, agricultural, industrial or otherwise, work, a living wage, conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and, in particular, the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or co-operative basis in rural areas.

43A. Participation of workers in management of industries
The State shall take steps, by suitable legislation or in any other way, to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings, establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry.

44. Uniform civil code for the citizens
The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India.

45. Provision for free and compulsory education for children
The State shall endeavour to provide, within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.

46. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections
The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people, and, in particular, of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation.

47. Duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health
The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and, in particular, the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health.

48. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry
The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall, in particular, take steps for preserving and improving the breeds, and prohibiting the slaughter, of cows and calves and other milch and draught cattle.

48A. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life
The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country.

49. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance
It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest, declared by or under law made by Parliament to be of national importance, from spoliation, disfigurement, destruction, removal, disposal or export, as the case may be.

50. Separation of judiciary from executive
The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State.

51. Promotion of international peace and security
The State shall endeavour to
(a) promote international peace and security;
(b) maintain just and honorable relations between nations;
(c) foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organized peoples with one another; and
(d) encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration.

 An important feature of the constitution is the Directive Principles of State Policy. Although the Directive Principles are asserted to be "fundamental in the governance of the country," they are not legally enforceable. Instead, they are guidelines for creating a social order characterized by social, economic, and political justice, liberty, equality, and fraternity as enunciated in the constitution's preamble.

The Forty-second Amendment, which came into force in January 1977, attempted to raise the status of the Directive Principles by stating that no law implementing any of the Directive Principles could be declared unconstitutional on the grounds that it violated any of the Fundamental Rights. The amendment simultaneously stated that laws prohibiting "antinational activities" or the formation of "antinational associations" could not be invalidated because they infringed on any of the Fundamental Rights. It added a new section to the constitution on "Fundamental Duties" that enjoined citizens "to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood among all the people of India, transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities." However, the amendment reflected a new emphasis in governing circles on order and discipline to counteract what some leaders had come to perceive as the excessively freewheeling style of Indian democracy. After the March 1977 general election ended the control of the Congress (Congress (R) from 1969) over the executive and legislature for the first time since independence in 1947, the new Janata-dominated Parliament passed the Forty-third Amendment (1977) and Forty-fourth Amendment (1978). These amendments revoked the Forty-second Amendment's provision that Directive Principles take precedence over Fundamental Rights and also curbed Parliament's power to legislate against "antinational activities.”

The Directive Principles of State DPSP are Policy (contained in part IV, articles 36 to 50,) of the Indian Constitution. Many of the provisions correspond to the provisions of the ICESCR. For instance, article 43 provides that the state shall endeavor to secure, by suitable legislation or economic organization or in any other way, to all workers, agricultural, industrial or otherwise, work, a living wage, conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities, and in particular the state shall endeavor to promote cottage industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas. This corresponds more or less to articles 11 and 15 of the ICESCR. However, some of the ICESCR rights, for instance, the right to health (art. 12), have been interpreted by the Indian Supreme Court to form part of the right to life under article 21 of the Constitution, thus making it directly enforceable and justiciable. As a party to the ICESCR, the Indian legislature has enacted laws giving effect to some of its treaty obligations and these laws are in turn enforceable in and by the courts.

Article 37 of the Constitution declares that the DPSP “shall not be enforceable by any court, but the principles therein laid down are nevertheless fundamental in the governance of the country and it shall be the duty of the state to apply these principles in making laws.” It is not a mere coincidence that the apparent distinction that is drawn by scholars between the ICCPR rights and ESC rights holds good for the distinction that is drawn in the Indian context between fundamental rights and DPSP. Thus the bar to justiciability of the DPSP is spelled out in some sense in the Constitution itself.

It was said by several members in the Constituent Assembly that the directive principles are superfluous or mere guidelines or pious principles or instructions. They have no binding force on the State. In his speech Dr. Ambedkar answered.

“ The directive principles are like instruments of instructions which were issued to the Governor in General and Governors of colonies and to those of India by the British Government under the 1935 Act under the Draft Constitution. It is proposed to issue such instructions to the president and governors. The text of these instruments of the instructions shall be found in scheduled IV to the Constitution of India. What are called directive principles is that they are instructions to the Legislature and the Executive. Such a thing is, to my mind, to be welcomed. Wherever there is grant or power in general terms for peace, order and good government that it is necessary that it should be accompanied by the instructions regulating its exercise.” It was never intended by Dr. Ambedkar that the Directive Principles had no legal force but had moral effect while educating members of the Government and the legislature, nor can it be said that the answer referred to necessarily implied with the Directive Principles had no legal force. 


Fundamental Rights are provided to the citizens by the Constitution of India. The Fundamental Rights and Duties are among the vital sections of the Constitution and prescribe the fundamental obligations of the state to its citizens and the duties of the citizens to the state. These are the essential elements of the constitution and they were developed by the Constituent Assembly of India between 1947 and 1949. Part III of the Constitution of India describes the Fundamental Rights offered to the country`s citizens. Fundamental Rights are essential human rights that can are offered to every citizen irrespective of caste, race, creed, place of birth, religion or gender. Fundamental Rights are subjected to specific restrictions and enforceable by courts. These are equal to freedoms and these rights are essential for personal good and the society at large.

Fundamental Rights are preserved as they guarantee civil liberties to all the citizens of the country for a calm and pleasant life. These are individual rights and comprise freedom of speech and expression, freedom to practice religion, equality before law, freedom of association and peaceful assembly and the right to constitutional remedies for the safeguard of civil rights by means of writs such as habeas corpus. The concept of providing the fundamental rights to the citizens has been taken from the England`s Bill of Rights; United States Bill of Rights and also France`s Declaration of the Rights of Man. Anyone who is violating the fundamental rights will face punishments in the court of law.

The Constitution of India guarantees six Fundamental Rights to the citizens. Right to Equality is the foremost right guaranteed to the citizens of India. It is provided in Articles 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18 of the constitution. This right is regarded as the principal foundation of all other rights and liberties. The Right to Equality guarantees Equality before law as per which citizens shall be equally protected by the laws of the country. Article 15 of the constitution states that there will be social equality and equal accessibility to public areas and no person shall be discriminated on the basis of caste, religion and language. Equality in matters of public employment is provided in Article 16 of the constitution of India that defines that all citizens can apply for government. Article 17 puts forth abolition of untouchability. The practice of untouchability is an offense and anyone found doing so is punishable by law. Abolition of titles is another right to equality described by the Article 18 of the constitution. It forbids the state from conferring any titles to the citizens of India.

Among the Fundamental Rights, Right to freedom is included in the articles 19, 20, 21 and 22. Right to freedom includes Freedom of speech and expression, Freedom to assemble peacefully without arms, Freedom to form associations or unions and Freedom to move freely throughout the territory of India. Furthermore, Right to freedom also states that citizens have the Freedom to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India and also have the Freedom to practice any profession or to carry on any occupation, trade or business. However, subject to reasonable restrictions by the State in the interest of the general public. Certain safeguards are envisaged to protect the citizens from exploitation and coercion.

Right against exploitation is another essential among the Fundamental Rights. This right is given in the Articles 23 and 24. It provides for two provisions such as abolition of trafficking in human beings and forced labour. The right also lays down abolition of employment of children below the age of 14 years in dangerous jobs like factories and mines. Right to freedom of religion is included under articles 25, 26, 27 and 28. It provides religious freedom to all citizens of India and sustains the principle of secularism in India. The Constitution provides that all religions are equal before the state and no religion shall be given preference over the other. Citizens are free to preach, practice and propagate any religion of their choice.

Fundamental Rights also provided Cultural and educational rights to its citizens and it is covered in Articles 29 and 30. According to this right ant community which has a language and a script of its own has the right to conserve and develop them. No citizen can be discriminated against for admission in State aided institutions. All minorities, religious or linguistic, can set up their own educational institutions in order to preserve and develop their own culture. Right to constitutional remedies is also provided in the constitution. This right authorises the citizens to move a court of law in case of any denial of the fundamental rights. The courts can issue various kinds of writs and these writs such as habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari. These writs help preserving and safeguarding the fundamental rights of the citizens of India.

Another prominent among the Fundamental Rights was the Right to property. Right to property in order to guarantee to all citizens the right to acquire hold and dispose off property. However, the 44th amendment act of 1978 removed the right to property from the list of Fundamental Rights. Article 300-A, was added to the Constitution which provided that `no person shall be deprived of his property save by authority of law`.

Fundamental rights are the freedoms that are given to the country`s citizens. They help in protecting as well as preventing gross violations of human rights. They give emphasis to fundamental unity of the country by guaranteeing the access and use of the same facilities, irrespective of caste, colour, creed and religion to all citizens. The fundamental rights were provided primarily to protect individuals from any arbitrary state actions, but some rights are enforceable against individuals. Only through a constitutional amendment, the Fundamental Rights can be altered. In addition to that during national and state emergency, the Fundamental Rights remain suspended.

The Fundamental Rights embodied in the Indian constitution acts as a guarante that all Indian citizens can and will lead their lifes in peace as long as they live in Indian democracy. These civil liberties take precedence over any other law of the land. They include individual rights common to most liberal democracies, such as equality before the law, freedom of speech and expression, freedom of association and peaceful assembly, freedom of religion, and the right to constitutional remedies for the protection of civil rights such as habeas corpus.

In addition, the Fundamental Rights for Indians are aimed at overturning the inequities of past social practices. They have also been used to in sucessfully abolishing the "untouchability"; prohibit discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth; and forbid trafficking in human beings and also the forced labor. They go beyond conventional civil liberties in protecting cultural and educational rights of minorities by ensuring that minorities may preserve their distinctive languages and establish and administer their own education institutions.

Originally, the right to property was also included in the Fundamental Rights; however, the Forty-fourth Amendment, passed in 1978, revised the status of property rights by stating that "No person shall be deprived of his property save by authority of law." Freedom of speech and expression, generally interpreted to include freedom of the press, can be limited "in the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality, or in relation to contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence" 

The Constitution offers all citizens, individually and collectively, some basic freedoms. These are guaranteed in the Constitution in the form of six broad categories of Fundamental Rights, which are justiciable. Article 12 to 35 contained in Part III of the Constitution deal with Fundamental Rights. These are:
  1. right to equality, including equality before law, prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth, and equality of opportunity in matters of employment;
  2. right to freedom of speech and expression, assembly, association or union, movement, residence, and right to practice any profession or occupation (some of these rights are subject to security of the State, friendly relations with foreign countries, public order, decency or morality);
  3. right against exploitation, prohibiting all forms of forced labour, child labour and traffic in human beings;
  4. right to freedom of conscience and free profession, practice, and propagation of religion;
  5. right of any section of citizens to conserve their culture, language or script, and right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice; and
  6. right to constitutional remedies for enforcement of Fundamental Rights.

The Preamble of Indian Constitution reflects the basic structure and the spirit of the Constitution. It is regarded that the preamble serves as a channelising tool for the interpretation of the Constitution as a whole. The preamble acts as the preface of the constitution of India and lays down the fundamental value and philosophical ideas. It represents the entire Constitution in its written words. It contains the basic features of the Constitution and thus considered to be a vital part. The preamble is significant because it highlights the type of society and government it wishes to establish. However, the preamble does not contain laws enforceable in a court but, no law can be enacted or amended in a manner that violates the spirit of the preamble. Thus the preamble of the constitution of India is unamendable or unalterable.

The Preamble of Indian Constitution states:

"WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:

  • JUSTICE, social, economic and political;



  • LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;



  • EQUALITY of status and of opportunity;and to promote among them all



  • FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation;



  • IN OUR CONSTITUTE ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do HERE BY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION"



  • The preamble was adopted with the constitution in the constituent assembly. It came into effect in 1950 along with the constitution. The original draft of the constitution opened with the words `Sovereign Democratic Republic` in the first line. The words `Socialist and Secular` were inserted by the 42nd amendment. The same amendment contributed to the changes of the words unity of the nation into unity and integrity of the nation. The significance of the Preamble of Indian Constitution lies in the "We, the people". These words emphasizes that the ultimately powers are vested in the hands of the people of India. The expressions state that the constitution is made by and made for the people of India. In addition to that, the Preamble also lays down the essential national goals for every citizen justice, liberty, equality, and fraternity.

    According to the Preamble of Indian Constitution, the word `Sovereign` occupies a vital role in the country. It means supreme or independent and embodies India is internally and externally sovereign and is free from the control of any foreign power. Furthermore, the country has a free government which is directly elected by the people and makes laws that govern the people. The word `Socialist` also has significance as it implies social and economic equality. The word was added by the 42nd amendment act of 1976 during the Emergency. In addition to that Social equality identifies the absence of discrimination on the grounds only of caste, colour, creed, sex, religion, or language. Besides, social equality has equal status and opportunities. The preamble also guarantees secularism. The word `Secular` was also inserted into the Preamble by the 42nd amendment act of 1976, during The Emergency. Secularism, implies equality of all religions and religious tolerance and does not identify any official state religion.

    Preamble of Indian Constitution is also puts forth the terms, Democratic and Republic. India follows a democratic form of government. The people of India elect their governments at all levels such as Union, State and local by a system of universal adult franchise. India is also a Republic, in a country where the head of state is elected, directly or indirectly, for a fixed tenure. The President of India is the titular head of the state. Thus, the Preamble plays pivotal role and serves two purpose including and indicate to the source from which the Constitution derives its authority and stating the objects, which the Constitution seeks to establish and promote.

    Indian Constitution is written, lengthy and detailed. Written constitution is that which is based on written laws duly passed by a representative body elected for this very purpose. In other words, a written constitution is an enacted constitution. An unwritten constitution, on the other hand, is an evolved constitution. It is primarily based on unwritten conventions, traditions and practices. The Constitution of the U.S.A. is another example of a written constitution and that of England of an unwritten one. 

    The Constitution of India is an elaborate document and is the most voluminous Constitution in the world. Our Constitution originally consisted of 395 Articles and eight Schedules. During the last forty-three years of its operation, seventy-six Amendments have been made to the Constitution. Two new Schedules have also been added, resulting in a further increase in its size and volume. An important reason for the extraordinary volume of the Constitution is that it contains detailed provisions regarding numerous aspects of governance. This was done to minimize confusion and ambiguity in the interpretation of the Constitution, another reason for its unusual lengthy is the incorporation of the good points of various constitutions of the world. The vastness of our country and its peculiar problems has also added to the bulk of the Constitution. Thus, for example, the Indian Constitution envisages laws for the governance of the States too. Detailed provisions regarding the working of the Union Government and the State Governments have been given with a view to avoiding any constitutional problem which the newly-born Democratic Republic might experience in the working of the Constitution.
    Partly Rigid and Partly Flexible Constitution

    A flexible constitution is that which can be amended like an ordinary law of the country, i.e. by a simple majority of Parliament. On the other hand, a rigid constitution is the one which prescribes a difficult procedure for its own amendment. 

    The Constitution of the U.S.A. is the best example of rigid constitution because it can be amended only if a proposal for constitutional amendment is passed by a two-third majority in each House of the Congress (the US Parliament) and ratified by at least three-fourths of the federating states. The Constitution of Great Britain, on the other hand, is highly flexible. This is so because it can be amended by a simple majority of its Parliament, much like the ordinary laws of the country. 

    The Indian Constitution is neither very flexible nor very rigid. Some provisions of the Constitution can be amended by a simple majority of Parliament, like ordinary laws of the land while most of the provisions can only be amended by a two-thirds majority of Parliament For very important provisions of the Constitution, such as the manner of election of the President and the extent of the legislative powers of the Union and the States, an amendment passed by a two-thirds majority of Parliament should also be ratified by at least one-half of the State legislatures. The Indian Constitution thus combines the flexibility of the British Constitution and the rigidity of the American Constitution. Jawaharlal Nehru, while justifying this nature of the Constitution, said,
    "0ur Constitution is to be as solid and permanent as we can make it, yet there is no permanence in a constitution. There should be a certain amount of flexibility. If you make anything rigid and permanent, you stop the nation’s growth, the growth of a living vital organic people."
    Partly Federal and Partly Unitary

    Our Constitution declares India a Union of States (federation). It prescribes dual set of governments-the Union Government and the State Governments. The subjects of administration have also been classified into three lists-the Union List, the State List and the Concurrent List. Whereas subjects of national importance like currency, defense, railways, post and telegraph, foreign affairs, citizenship, survey and census have been assigned to the Union Government and placed under the Union List, subjects of local importance like agriculture, law and order, health and entertainment have been assigned to the States and form a part of the State List. Both the Union Government and the State Governments operate within the spheres of their authority. The Union Parliament and the State Legislatures enjoy co-equal powers to make laws in regard to the Concurrent subjects. These subjects are of common importance such as marriage and divorce, adoption, succession, transfer of property, preventive detention, education, civil and criminal law, etc. 

    However, if there is a conflict between a Union law and a law passed by one or many State Legislatures, the law made by the Union Parliament would prevail over the State law. The Indian Constitution possesses other features of a federation too, for example, supremacy of the constitution. This means that the Union and the State Governments both operate within the limits set by the Constitution. Both the governments derive authority from the Constitution itself. 

    Similarly, in all federal countries, the authority of the Court is a well established fact. This means that in case of a dispute between the Union Government and State Governments or between two or more State Governments, the verdict of the Court will be final. Not only this, the Supreme Court is given the responsibility of interpreting the Constitution in case of dispute or confusion. The Supreme Court of India is the guardian of the Constitution and fulfils its role as a Federal Court too. 

    The Indian Constitution, though federal in form, has a strong unitary bias. The Central Government possesses extensive powers compared to the State Governments. The exercise of these powers by the Centre gives the Constitution the strength of a unitary government. 

    Let us look at those provisions of the Indian Constitution that make it partly unitary. The Union Government can supersede the authority of the States both in the normal and abnormal times. The President of India can declare three different types of emergency. During the operation of an emergency, the powers of the State Governments are greatly curtailed and the Union Government becomes all in all. Even in normal times, the Union Parliament can legislate upon a subject given in the State List, if the Rajya Sabha passes a resolution by a two-thirds vote that such legislation is necessary in the national interest. Moreover, the Indian Constitution, unlike the US Constitution, does not provide for double citizenship, division of public services or of the judiciary. Similarly, the States in India do not enjoy the right to secede from the Union nor do they enjoy equality of representation in the Council of States (Rajya Sabha). Another unitary feature of our Constitution is that it gives Union Parliament the power to alter the boundaries of the existing States or to carve out new States out of the existing ones. It is on account of these features that the Indian Constitution is said to be federal in form but unitary in spirit.
    Parliamentary System

    The Constitution of India adopts Parliamentary system of government at the Centre and in the States. In such a system of government, the executive power is wielded by the Council of Ministers which is collectively responsible to the legislature. The Ministers continue in office so long as they enjoy the confidence of a majority of Members in the legislature. The moment they lose this confidence, a vote of no-confidence is passed against them and they have to resign forthwith. The responsibility of the executive to the legislature is also ensured by the right of the Members of the legislature to put questions to the Ministers. The Members may table adjournment motions and call attention motions against the policies pursued by the Government. The Ministers are duty-bound to answer all such questions and satisfy the Members of the legislature.
    Fundamental Rights

    Certain rights are considered basic or fundamental as they provide suitable conditions for the material and moral uplift of the people. The Indian Constitution guarantees a number of such rights to the citizens of India. The Fundamental Rights of India conferred by the Constitution are:
    • The Right to Equality;
    • The Right to Freedom;
    • The Right against Exploitation;
    • The Right to Freedom of Religion;
    • Cultural and Educational Rights; and
    • The Right to Constitutional Remedies.
    The Right to Property was deleted from the list of Fundamental Rights by the Forty-fourth Constitution Amendment Act, 1978. The fundamental rights as envisaged in the Constitution of India are justiciable.
    Directive Principles of State Policy

    The Directive Principles of State Policy constitute another distinctive feature of our Constitution, These Principles embody certain ideals and objectives which should be kept in mind by the Union and State Governments while making laws and implementing policies. The implementation of these directives was not made compulsory due to the paucity of resources. The framers of the Constitution expected that as and when the future Governments would mobilise resources, they would do their best to implement these directives. Equitable distribution of wealth, employment for all, protection of health, compulsory education for children up to the age of fourteen and the establishment of village panchayats are some such principles. The Directive Principles of State Policy are non-justifiable. No legal remedy can be sought in a court of law ft the Government fails to follow or implement any of these principles. In other words, the Directive Principles are non-justifiable rights of the citizen. However, these principles are considered important in the governance of the country. It becomes a moral duty of every government to follow them and realise the purpose behind them. Several amendments to the Constitution, together with some judgments of the Supreme Court have paved the way for the implementation of the Directive Principles.
    Independence of the Judiciary

    Our Constitution has taken special care to establish an independent and impartial judiciary. The judges of the Supreme Court and the State High Courts have been provided security of service. Once appointed, their salaries and allowances cannot be altered to their disadvantage by the Government during the course of their tenure. Nor can they be dismissed before the age of their retirement except in case of proven misconduct supported by a resolution of Parliament passed by a two-thirds majority. Security of service of judges is in keeping with the dignity and prestige of the highest judicial organs of the country. This provision has been made in the Constitution to keep the judges independent and immune from the control and influence of the Executive. The judges can exercise their discretion in the dispensation of justice even if their decisions go against the Government. The Supreme Court and the State High Courts are also the guardians of the rights and liberties of the citizens and protect them against arbitrary action on the part of all government agencies.
    Official Language

    In a country like India, with diverse cultural traditions and languages, it is essential to declare one language as the national language, symbolic of the unity of the different regions of the country. The Constitution declares Hindi in Devanagari script as the official language of the country. Besides, each State is authorised to adopt a regional language for all or some of its official purposes. English has also been allowed to be used along with other languages for official purposes.
    Adult Franchise and Joint Electorates

    The Constitution provides for Universal Adult Franchise. The citizens of India who are 18 years of age and above have been granted the right to vote irrespective of any qualification pertaining to education, possession of property or payment of income tax. The adoption of Universal Adult Franchise was indeed a very daring step taken by the Constituent Assembly in view of the fact that large sections of our people are illiterate. The manner and the orderliness, with which Indian masses have exercised their right to vote during ten general elections and many State Legislative Assembly elections, speak eloquently of the political maturity of our people. The Constitution has replaced the system of communal representation (introduced by the British in 1909) by that of joint electorates. The country is divided into territorial constituencies. From each constituency, members of different communities jointly elect a common candidate. The system of joint electorates promotes communal harmony and goodwill and discourages communal politics. To bring the Scheduled Castes and Tribes at par with the other communities of the country, some seats have been reserved for them in the Union Parliament, State Legislatures and local bodies. There are reserved parliamentary and assembly constituencies from where only the members of the Scheduled Castes or Tribes can contest elections.
    Establishment of a Welfare State

    The Preamble to the Constitution, as modified by the Forty-second Amendment Act, 1976 and the Directive Principles of State Policy aim at the establishment of a Welfare State in India. Keeping in view the inherent spirit of the Constitution, the successive governments at the Centre have been pursuing a policy of democratic socialism. Nationalization of banks and general insurance, fixation of ceiling on urban and rural lands and abolition of privy purses of the rulers of the erstwhile native States, implementation of various poverty alleviation programs are some of the measures which have been taken to remove gross inequalities of wealth and to usher in an era of social and economic equality.

    Some of the Salient features of Indian Constitution are,

    (1) Written Constitution
    The constitution of the Indian Republic is written. It contains 395 articles and 10 Schedules, According to the proposals of the Cabinet Mission Plan; Constituent Assembly was set up for framing a constitution for the Union of India. The Assembly consisted of the representatives of the provinces and the nominees of the states, ft met in New Delhi in December 1946. After nearly three years of deliberations if finally adopted the constitution on November 26, 1949. The Indian Republic was inaugurated on January 26, 1950.

    (2) Rigid and flexible
    The constitution is rigid in the sense that most of its parts cannot be amended by the ordinary law-making process. There are three methods of amending the constitution. Some of its facts can be amended by the ordinary law-making process by Parliament. Certain provisions can be amended provided that a Bill for that purpose is passed in each House of Parliament by a majority of the total membership of the House and by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members present and voting; the Bill then is presented to the President who has to give his assent. Then there are certain other provisions which can be amended if a Bill for that purpose is passed by the second method described above and ratified by the Legislatures of not less than one-half of the states before being presented to the President.
    Thus the constitution is rigid as well as flexible.

    (3) Drawn from Different' Sources
    A distinguishing feature of the Indian constitution is that it was prepared after transacting all the known constitutions of the world. So it is a borrowed constitution, it is a patch work. For example, the Parliamentary System has been borrowed from England, the concept of independent judiciary and judicial review and fundamental rights from the U.S. Constitution, the federal features from Canada and the Directive Principles from Ireland. However, the Government of India Act of 1935 has the greatest impact on our constitution. As Prof. Jennings observes, "the constitution derives directly from the Government of India Act of 1935 from which, in fact, many of its provisions are copied almost textually In the words of Dr. Punjab Rao Deshmukh, the constitution of India is "essentially the Government of India Act with only adult franchise added."
    But it is also true that whatever .the framers of the constitution borrowed from different source's, they modified it .with a view to avoiding the faults that have been disclosed in its working and adopted it to the existing conditions and needs of the country.

    (4) Detailed Administrative Provisions Included
    Our constitution is a bulky document. It is because the framers of the constitution followed and almost reproduced the Government of India Act of 1935 which itself is a lengthy and detailed organic law. As Dr. B.R. Ambedkar observed, it is perfectly possible to pervert the constitution without changing the form of administration. To prevent such subversion of the constitution detailed administrative provisions were included in it. We have in our- constitution detailed provisions about the organization of the judiciary, the services, the Public Service Commission, Election and the like, and about the division of powers between the Union and the states.

    (5) Constitution of the units also included
    The constitution of a federal state usually deals only with the Federal Government and leaves the federating units to draw their own constitutions. This practice was followed in the framing of the constitutions of the USA, USSR, Canada and other Federal States. But the Indian constitution provides the constitutions of both the Union and the states. This has contributed to the bulk of the Indian constitution.

    (6) Sovereign Democratic Republic
    The Indian Independence Act, 1947 declared India dominion with the Queen of England as the head of the state. The Governor-General- was appointed by the Queen and acted as her representative in this country. The, authors of the constitutor; rightly decided that Dominion status was not in conformity with the dignity of the Indian nation. The preamble of the constitution, therefore, declared India as a Sovereign Democratic Republic. It means that India as a nation does not owe allegiance to any foreign power, is independent in her dealings with foreign countries and enjoys equal status in the world community with other independent sovereign states.

    India is a democracy. It means that sovereignty rests with the people of India. They govern themselves through their representatives elected on the basis of universal adult franchise. Besides, the constitution confers on Indian citizens some fundamental rights and which are considered to be the essence of a democratic system.

    India is a republic as unlike Britain there is no hereditary element in the Indian Governmental system. The President, the highest official of the state, is elective. The institution of monarchy which obtained in the states before Independence was abolished.

    Although India is a sovereign republic, yet she continues to be a member of the Commonwealth of Nations with the British Monarch as its head. Her membership of the commonwealth does not compromise her position as a sovereign republic. The Commonwealth is an association of free and independent nations. The British monarch is only symbolic head of the association.

    (7) Secular State
    India is a secular state. It means that the state does not recognize, establish or endow any church or religious organization. It is not guided in the discharge of its functions by the considerations of secular or the worldly welfare of the people. It does not seek to promote the spiritual or religious welfare of the people. It allows freedom of religion. The constitution guarantees freedom of worship, faith and conscience. It does not discriminate in matters of government employment on the basis of religion. The term "Secular" did not occur in any part of the original constitution. It was incorporated in the preamble by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment in 1976.

    (8) Socialist State
    India is a socialist state. The term "Socialist" was added to the preamble of the constitution by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act of 1976. But it is to be noted that the "Socialism" envisaged by the constitution is not the usual state socialism of Russian or Chinese variety which involves nationalization of all the means of production, distribution; communication etc. The late Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi, explained the nature of Indian Socialism: "We have always said that we have our own brand of socialism. We will .nationalize the sectors where we feel the necessity. Just nationalization is not our type of socialism."

    (9) Fundamental Rights and Constitutional Remedies
    Like the constitution of the USA and the USSR, the Indian constitution contains a comprehensive Bill of Rights. Right to freedom, right to equality, right to religion, right against exploitation, and cultural rights have been guaranteed to the citizens of India.

    The rights are enforceable in the courts. The constitution guarantees the right to move the Supreme Court and the High Courts by appropriate proceedings for the enforcement of the rights mentioned above. The remedies for enforcing the rights, namely, the writs of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition and certiorari are also guaranteed by the constitution under Article 32.

    (10) Fundamental Duties
    A chapter Part IVA on fundamental duties was incorporated in the constitution by the 42nd Amendment Act. Article 51A of the constitution enumerates ten fundamental duties of the citizens of India. To respect and abide by the constitution and the laws; to uphold the sovereignty of the nation; to respect the democratic institutions enshrined in the constitution to abjure communalism and violence is some of the fundamental duties of the citizens. But unlike the fundamental rights, the fundamental duties are not enforceable in • the courts.

    (11) Directive Principles of State Policy
    A distinctive feature of the constitution is that it contains a Chapter, IVth on the Directive Principles of State Policy. These Directives relate mostly to social and economic justice, such as adequate means of livelihood for all distribution of wealth so as to sub serve the common good, equal pay for equal work, protection of adult and child labor, free and compulsory primary education etc. These are the Guiding principles of state policy. The authors of the constitution did not make the Directive Principles justiciable. Though the Directive Principles are not enforceable by the courts and if the government of the day fails to carry out these objects no court can make the government ensure them, yet the principles have been declared to be fundamental in the governance of the country and it shall be the duty of the state to apply these, principles in making laws.

    (12) A federal Polity
    The constitution is federal in nature but the term "Federation" has now here been used in the constitution. India has been described as a Union of States according to the Article 1 of the constitution. There are twenty five states in the union, each one with a separate Executive, Legislature and Judiciary. Powers have been divided between the Union Government on the one hand and the states on the other by the constitution itself. The constitution is sovereign and there is provision for judicial review.

    (13) Parliamentary System of Government
    India has borrowed the Parliamentary system of Government. Both at the centre and in the states the Executive is responsible to the Legislature elected by the people on the basis of adult franchise. The President, who is the head of the state, is only the nominal head of the Government. The real head of the government is the Prime Minister who is the leader of the majority party in Parliament. The Cabinet, headed by the Prime Minister, is collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha, the Lower House of Parliament. In the states also the government is parliamentary in nature.

    (14) Adult Franchise
    Although at the time when the constitution was made, the vast majority of the Indian people were illiterate and backward, the framers of the constitution took the bold step of conferring the right to vote on every adult citizen of India irrespective of the differences of education, property or sex. Every citizen who is 21 years of age has the right to vote. This makes the constitution democratic in the real sense of the term.

    (15) Reservation in Legislatures and Services for Backward Classes
    A distinctive feature of the Indian constitution is that there is reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the House of the People and in the state, assemblies which according to the sixty-second amendment 1989 will continue up to the year 2000. The constitution also lays down that the claims of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes shall be taken into consideration in making appointments to services and posts' in connection with the affairs of the Union or of a state.

    There is also reservation of seats for Anglo-Indian community in the House of the People and in some State Assemblies.

    (16) Supreme Court and judicial Review
    A Supreme Court is a necessary element in a federal polity. Accordingly, the Indian constitution has established a Supreme Court of India. The court has both original and appellate jurisdiction. It has the power of judicial review. It can declare any Legislative enactment or administrative Act as unconstitutional if it is deemed to be in conflict with the provisions of the constitution. Besides, the Supreme Court is a court of record.

    1. The total Solar eclipse of the 21st Century occurred on:

    1) 20th July, 2009
    2) 21st July, 2009
    3) 22nd July, 2009
    4) 23rd July, 2009

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    2. The following is the outline map of a country. Identify it:

    1) Brazil
    2) Mexico
    3) Iran
    4) Canada

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    3. The following is the outline map of a State in India. Identify it :
    1) Orissa
    2) Uttar Pradesh
    3) Tamil Nadu
    4) Karnataka

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    4. The following is the outline map of a District in Andhra Pradesh. Identify it:

    1) Karimnagar
    2) Khammam
    3) Guntur
    4) Anantapur

    5. The outer layer of the earth is known as :
    1) Mantle
    2) Core
    3) Cirrus
    4) Crust
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    6. Which one of the following is the major Ocean of the world?
    1) Indian Ocean
    2) Atlantic Ocean
    3) Pacific Ocean
    4) Arctic Ocean
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    7. Latitudes are imaginary lines drawn parallel to the Equator and run from :
    1) North to South
    2) East to West
    3) Arctic circle to North pole
    4) South pole to Tropic of cancer
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    8. Bandipur National Park/Wildlife sanctuary is in :
    1) Assam
    2) Gujarat
    3) Karnataka
    4) Tamil Nadu
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    9. On 21st March and 21st September the Sun's rays fall directly on :
    1) Exosphere
    2) Equator
    3) Stratosphere
    4) Tropic of Capricorn
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    10. In Andhra Pradesh among the following lead deposits are found in:
    1) Kurnool District
    2) Nizamabad District
    3) Vijayanagaram District
    4) Chittoor District
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    11. The first Coalition Government formed at the Centre was :
    1) Janata Government
    2) United Front Government
    3) National Democratic Government
    4) National Front Government
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    12. The Article 243-G of the Indian Constitution contains :
    1) The financial resources of Panchayat Raj Bodies
    2) The functions of the Nyaya Panchayats
    3) The powers and functions of Village Panchayats
    4) The powers of chairpersons of Zilla Parishads and Mandal Parishads
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    13. Gandhiji launched his first Satyagraha is South Africa in the year :
    1) 1905
    2) 1906
    3) 1915
    4) 1916
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    14. The 97th Constitutional Amendment Act resulted in the :
    1) Readjustment of Lok Sabha Constituencies
    2) Prohibition of Members of Parliament to hold offices of profit
    3) Increase in the number of languages in the 8th Schedule of the Constitution
    4) Limiting the size of the cabinet at the centre and state levels to 10 percent of the total strength of the respective lower houses
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    15. The method which became popular in recent past for employing persons for various jobs in the public as well as private sectors is :
    1) Contract appointments
    2) Emergency recruitment
    3) Outsourcing
    4) On-line recruitment
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    16. Sustainable development exactly means :
    1) Improving the conditions of present generation without affecting the needs of future generation
    2) Development that percoloates to the bottom level sections in the society
    3) Development with social justice
    4) Development that lasts for a long time
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    17. President Rule was imposed in Andhra Pradesh in 1973 because of:
    1) Telangana agitation
    2) Jai Andhra Movement
    3) Political instability
    4) Failure of Constitutional Machinery
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    18. The lowest number of seats won by the Congress Party in the Andhra Pradesh State Assembly Elections held in the year :
    1) 1983
    2) 1985
    3) 1994
    4) 1999
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    19. The name of the Programme recently introduced by Government of Andhra Pradesh to merge all the anti-poverty programmes into a single integrated scheme is :
    1) Velugu
    2) Indira Prabha
    3) Rajiv Gandhi Pragathi Patham
    4) Indira Kranthi Pathakam
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    20. Providing microfinance arrangements to the poor women for extension of credit along with thrift-type of saving schemes is through :
    1) Jawahar Rozgar Yojana
    2) Self-Help Groups
    3) National Rural Employment Programme
    4) Indira Prabha
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    21. Minimum support prices for food crops to the Union Government is recommended by :
    1) Agricultural Commission
    2) Ministry of Agriculture
    3) Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices
    4) Food Corporation of India
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    22. The duration of medium term agricultural credit is :
    1) 15 months to 5 years
    2) 5 years to 10 years
    3) less than 3 months
    4) 3 months to 6 months
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    23. Karl Pearson's coefficient of correlation lies between :
    1) –1 to +1
    2) –1 to 0
    3) 0 to 1
    4) 1 to 100
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    REFERENCE : Wikipedia click here

    24. Saving is :
    1) the major determinant of growth
    2) the only determinant of growth
    3) one of the determinants of growth
    4) not concerned with growth
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    25. Which of the following descriptions does not explain VAT as per its conceptualisation?
    1) It will diminish revenue buoyancy
    2) It is a harmonised commodity taxation regime
    3) Its effects are non-cascading
    4) It is a self-enforcing system
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    26. Heavy Sector Strategy is associated with the name of :
    1) Brahmananda
    2) Mahalanobis
    3) Bhagwati
    4) Chakravarti
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    27. A stable macroeconomy contributes to global integration through the :
    1) Ability to withstand shocks
    2) Use of prices as signals
    3) High returns from education
    4) Creation of financial discipline
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    28. One of the key elements of India's market based developmental strategy is :
    1) No Government intervention
    2) Investment in physical capital
    3) Integration with the global economy
    4) A rapidly changing macroeconomy
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    29. The Comptroller and Auditor General submits his Annual Report regarding the Centre to :
    1) The Prime Minister
    2) The President
    3) The Parliament
    4) The Chairman of the Planning Commission
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    30. The Regional Rural Bank is a bank sponsored by :
    1) Reserve Bank of India
    2) Ministry of Finance
    3) NABARD
    4) Scheduled Commercial Bank
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    31. Alfred Noble is associated with the invention of :
    1) Cosmic rays
    2) Dynamite
    3) Dynamo
    4) Penicillin
    Click For ANSWER 
    32. The period of revolution of a geostationary satellite is :
    1) 365 days
    2) 30 days
    3) 1 day
    4) 12 hours
    Click For ANSWER 

    33. Permanent hardness of water is due to the presence of :
    1) Calcium sulphate
    2) Calcium bicarbonate
    3) Sodium bicarbonate
    4) Magnesium bicarbonate
    Click For ANSWER 
    34. The Greenhouse effect deals with :
    1) Cooling of lower atmosphere
    2) Warming of upper atmosphere
    3) Cooling of upper atmosphere
    4) Warming of lower atmosphere
    Click For ANSWER  
    REFERENCE: Click Here

    35. Pace-maker is related to :
    1) heart
    2) lung
    3) liver
    4) kidney
    Click For ANSWER 

    36. Inertia is the property of :
    1) force
    2) strength
    3) mass
    4) volume
    Click For ANSWER 

    37. Tea will cool most easily in :
    1) glass cup
    2) metal cup
    3) clay cup
    4) porcelain cup
    Click For ANSWER 
    38. When there is no external force acts on a system of particles, the velocity of centre of mass of the system will be :
    1) increased
    2) decreased
    3) zero
    4) constant
    Click For ANSWER 
    39. If the momentum of a body is increased by 100%, th kinetic energy will be increased by :
    1) 300%
    2) 200%
    3) 100%
    4) 50%
    Click For ANSWER 

    40. The colour given by excess Lithium in Lithium Chloride solid is :
    1) Violet
    2) Green
    3) Pink
    4) Yellow
    Click For ANSWER 

    41. Sodium benzoate is used as a :
    1) flavouring agent
    2) preservative
    3) colouring agent
    4) antacid
    Click For ANSWER 
    42. The element used in Integrated circuits of computers is :
    1) Iron
    2) Magnesium
    3) Aluminium
    4) Silicon
    Click For ANSWER 
    43. Brass is an alloy of :
    1) Copper and Aluminium
    2) Copper and Tin
    3) Copper and Zinc
    4) Copper and Nickel
    Click For ANSWER 
    44. Blood is a :
    1) Solution
    2) Colloid
    3) Emulsion
    4) Gel
    Click For ANSWER 
    45. Mosquito repellents contain mainly :
    1) calcium dihydrogen phosphate
    2) potassium hydrogen phosphate
    3) sodium hydrogen sulphate
    4) ammonium bicarbonate
    Click For ANSWER 
    46. The economically useful part in Ginger is :
    1) Bulb
    2) Fruit
    3) Rhizome
    4) Root
    Click For ANSWER 
    47. The edible part of coffee seed is :
    1) Tapetum
    2) Mace
    3) Caruncle
    4) Perisperm
    Click For ANSWER 
    48. Lutein is a/an :
    1) Blue coloured pigment
    2) Yellow coloured pigment
    3) Brown coloured pigment
    4) Orange coloured pigment
    Click For ANSWER 
    REFERENCE : Click Here

    49. In the area of Biotechnology enzyme that is produced commercially both from plants and microbes is :
    1) Papain
    2) Trypsin
    3) Protease
    4) Amylase
    Click For ANSWER 
    50. Plants that grow in seashores are called as :
    1) Halophytes
    2) Hydrophytes
    3) Xerophytes
    4) Psammophytes
    Click For ANSWER 

    51. The study of animal behaviour is called as :
    1) Etymology
    2) Ethology
    3) Ecology
    4) Euphenics
    Click For ANSWER 
    52. Vitamin related with production of antibodies is :
    1) B6
    2) B12
    3) B1
    4) B2
    Click For ANSWER 
    53. Serological tests have enormous value in the process of :
    1) Classification
    2) Identification
    3) Diversity
    4) Code of nomenclature
    Click For ANSWER 
    54. Pearls are the products from :
    1) Annelids
    2) Arthropods
    3) Poriferans
    4) Molluscs
    Click For ANSWER 
    55. Siphoning type of mouth parts are present in :
    1) Mosquito
    2) Cockroach
    3) Butterfly
    4) Housefly
    Click For ANSWER 
    56. The space shuttle launched by NASA in November, 2009 was :
    1) Atlantis
    2) Challenger
    3) Columbia
    4) Discovery
    Click For ANSWER 
    REFERENCE : Click Here

    57. The United Nations Climate Change Conference, 2009 was concluded in :
    1) Poland
    2) Denmark
    3) China
    4) Japan
    Click For ANSWER 
    58. Recently, the manuscripts of which one of the following has been included in the UNESCO's Memory of World Register?
    1) Mahabharata
    2) Ramayana
    3) Rigveda
    4) Abhidhamma Pitaka
    Click For ANSWER 
    59. In February, 2009, the first model e-COurt in India was launched by the :
    1) High Court of Gujarat
    2) High Court of Tamil Nadu
    3) High Court of Himachal Pradesh
    4) High Court of Andhra Pradesh
    Click For ANSWER 
    60. Global Campaign '350' was observed as an International Day for Climate Action on :
    1) 25th October, 2009
    2) 30th October, 2009
    3) 14th October, 2009
    4) 24th October, 2009 
    Click For ANSWER  
       
    61. The Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation Model of Economic Development assigns a key role to the :
    1) Foreign Direct Investment
    2) Information Technology
    3) Private Sector
    4) Public-Private partnership
    Click For ANSWER 
    62. The bulk of the business relating to the Indian Stock Market is handled by the :
    1) Reserve Bank of India
    2) Bombay Stock Exchange
    3) National Stock Exchange
    4) International Stock Exchange
    Click For ANSWER 
    63. Achievement of the growth rate of 9.5% is/was the target of :
    1) Ministry of Finance
    2) Eleventh Five Year Plan
    3) Tenth Five Year Plan
    4) Planning Commission
    Click For ANSWER 
    64. The recent statement made by the Indian Prime Minister that the Higher Education in India can be developed through adopting approach of :
    1) Privatisation
    2) Involvement of Foreign Providers
    3) Earmaking 60% of the national income for higher education
    4) Public-Private partnership
    Click For ANSWER 
    65. The crisis of which impelled the Central Government to introduce far reaching reforms in the country's economy in 1990-1991 was :
    1) Balance of payments crisis
    2) Crisis in Public Sector
    3) Financial crisis
    4) Foreign exchange
    Click For ANSWER 
    66. Introducing a man, a woman said, "He is the only son of my mother's mother." How is the woman related to the man?
    1) Sister
    2) Niece
    3) Aunt
    4) Mother
    Click For ANSWER 
    67. Five girls are sitting in a row. Rashi is not adjacent to Sulekha or Abha. Anuradha is not adjacent to Sulekha. Rashi is adjacent to Monika. Monika is at the middle in the row. Then Anuradha is adjacent to whom out of the following?
    1) Rashi
    2) Monika
    3) Abha
    4) Sulekha
    Click For ANSWER 
    68. Which two months in a year have the same calendar?
    1) April, June
    2) January, December
    3) April, July
    4) June, October
    Click For ANSWER 
    69. Rahul ranks tenth from the top and thirty-fourth from the bottom in a class. How many students are there in the class?
    1) 45
    2) 43
    3) 46
    4) 44
    Click For ANSWER 
    70. Arrange the following items from general to particular :
    a) Animal
    b) Feline
    c) Leopard
    d) Mammal
    e) Vertebrate
    f) Cat

    1) adcbef
    2) acedbf
    3) abcdef
    4) aedbcf

    Click For ANSWER 

    71. In a group of 15 people, 7 read French, 8 read English while 3 of them read none of these two. How many of them read both French and English?
    1) 0
    2) 3
    3) 4
    4) 5
    Click For ANSWER 
    72. Find the missing character from among the alternatives :







    1) 9
    2) 12
    3) 18
    4) 6
    Click For ANSWER 
    73. What is always in worry?
    1) Non-Cooperation
    2) Unrest
    3) Poignancy
    4) Difficulty
    Click For ANSWER 
    74. Identify the odd one in the following :
    1) Hinduism
    2) Christianity
    3) Zoroastrianism
    4) Islam
    Click For ANSWER 
    75. What does the following sign indicate?










    1) Hospital
    2) First Aid
    3) Cross Road
    4) No Parking
    Click For ANSWER 

    76. If these letters RIDANI DINAGM rearranged, it would be the name of a :
    1) Political leader
    2) President
    3) Governor
    4) Actor
    Click For ANSWER 
    77. If KNOWLEDGE is coded as '256535475' the 'GENERAL' is coded as :
    1) 7545993
    2) 7969393
    3) 7555912
    4) 7555913
    Click For ANSWER 
    78. 'Gas' is to 'Pipe' as 'Electricity' is to :
    1) Current
    2) Switch
    3) Wire
    4) Regulator
    Click For ANSWER 
    79. Mention the sport/game with which the term Mashie is most closely associated :
    1) High Jump
    2) Golf
    3) Volleyball
    4) Kho-Kho
    Click For ANSWER 
    80. Mention the term with which the game Chess is closely associated:
    1) Castle
    2) Home Run
    3) Mashie
    4) Raider
    Click For ANSWER 
    81. Identify the name of the creator of the popular fictional character Lord Voldemort :
    1) Eoin Coulfer
    2) J.K. Rowling
    3) Salman Rushdie
    4) Edgar Rice Burroughs
    Click For ANSWER 
    82. Identify the name of the popular fictional character created by Edgar Rice Burroughs :
    1) Feluda
    2) Hercule Poirot
    3) Tarzan
    4) Gandalf
    Click For ANSWER 
    83. The slogan of State Bank of India is :
    1) With you all the way
    2) A tradition of trust
    3) Trusted family Bank
    4) Care at every stage of life
    Click For ANSWER 
    84. Identify the following Emblem :









    1) Union Public Service Commission
    2) Government of Andhra Pradesh
    3) University Grants Commission
    4) National Council of Educational Research and Training
    Click For ANSWER 
    85. The following Emblem indicates :











    1) Doordarshan
    2) Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited
    3) Steel Authority of India Limited
    4) Bharat Heavey Electricals Limited
    Click For ANSWER 
    86. The following Emblem belongs to :









    1) Indian Bank
    2) Canara Bank
    3) Syndicate Bank
    4) Andhra Bank
    Click For ANSWER 

    87. 'Body' includes 'limb' as 'tree' includes :
    1) Seed
    2) Wood
    3) Branch
    4) Soil
    Click For ANSWER 
    88. A train is travelling at a speed of 120 km per hour. How long will it take to travel 10 kms?
    1) 5 minutes
    2) 10 minutes
    3) 10 minutes
    4) 15 minutes
    Click For ANSWER 
    89. A student got twice as many sums wrong as he got right. If he attempted 36 sums in all, how many did he solve correctly?
    1) 18
    2) 24
    3) 9
    4) 12
    Click For ANSWER 
    90. Rearrange the letters SESTA to make meaningful word :
    1) Sets
    2) Asset
    3) Tests
    4) Tseas
    Click For ANSWER 

    91. Who known as the Plato of the Jat tribe?
    1) Churaman
    2) Raja Ram
    3) Surajmal
    4) Badan Singh
    Click For ANSWER 
    92. After Bengal, the English secured the rights of duty free trade in the dominions of :
    1) Nawab of Awadh
    2) The Nizam of Hyderabad
    3) Raja of Banaras
    4) The Jats of Bharatpur
    Click For ANSWER 
    93. 'Madhura Vijayam' was composed by :
    1) Molla
    2) Gangadevi
    3) Ramabhadramba
    4) Madhuravani
    Click For ANSWER 
    94. The Vernacular Press Act was passed during the tenure of :
    1) Warren Hastings
    2) Bentinck
    3) Lytton
    4) Curzon
    Click For ANSWER 
    95. The founder of the Servants of India Society was :
    1) Dadabhai Naoroji
    2) Gopalkrishna Gokhale
    3) M.G. Ranade
    4) Balgangadhar Tilak
    Click For ANSWER 

    96. Who was popularly called as Andhra Shivaji?
    1) Duggirala Gopala Krishnaiah
    2) Kanneganti Hanumanthu
    3) Konda Venkatappaiah
    4) P. Veerayya Chowdary
    Click For ANSWER 
    97. The first Indian King who abdicated his throne, was :
    1) Chandragupta I
    2) Asoka
    3) Chandragupta Maurya
    4) Samudragupta
    Click For ANSWER 
    98. The founder of Nalanda University was :
    1) Kumaragupta
    2) Samudragupta
    3) Asoka
    4) Nalanda
    Click For ANSWER 
    99. Who defeated Harsha and assumed the title 'Parameshwar'?
    1) Pulakesin I
    2) Pulakesin II
    3) Mahendravarman I
    4) Mahendravarman II
    Click For ANSWER 
    100.Jahangir's Court was visited by the English trader, namely :
    1) Daniel
    2) Christofer
    3) Sir William John
    4) Sir Thomas Roe
    Click For ANSWER 
    101.What was the childhood name of Nur Jahan?
    1) Bahu Begam
    2) Bharagal Nisha
    3) Maharul Nisa
    4) Mumtaj
    Click For ANSWER 
    102.Which Governor-General is associated with the 'Doctrine of Lapse'?
    1) Cornwallis
    2) Ripon
    3) Curzon
    4) Dalhousie
    Click For ANSWER 
    103. When was the Hyderabad State Congress formed?
    1) 1938
    2) 1935
    3) 1932
    4) 1929
    Click For ANSWER 
    104. The Direct Action Day observed by the Muslim League was on :
    1) August 12, 1946
    2) August 15, 1946
    3) August 16, 1946
    4) August 15, 1947
    Click For ANSWER 
    105. The 'Kurnool Circular' was issued by the State Congress leaders during :
    1) Vandemataram Movement
    2) Quit India Movement
    3) Salt Satyagraha
    4) Non-Cooperation Movement
    Click For ANSWER 
    106. On the Western end of Lake Ontario the chief iron and steel producer is :
    1) Hamilton
    2) Sydney
    3) Trenton
    4) Regina
    Click For ANSWER 
    107.The Tweed Valley is located in :
    1) Bradford
    2) Leeds
    3) Scotland
    4) Huddersfield
    Click For ANSWER 

    108.The highest peak in Australia is :
    1) Mt. Ossa
    2) Mt. Woodroppe
    3) Mt. Bruce
    4) Mt. Kosciuska
    Click For ANSWER 
    109. The largest bauxite field of Australia is located at :
    1) Grove
    2) Weipa
    3) Orange
    4) Victoria
    Click For ANSWER 
    110. Nikopol deposits of Ukraine consists of :
    1) Manganese
    2) Chromite
    3) Copper
    4) Nickel
    Click For ANSWER 

    111.The region between Kunlun mountains and the Alyn Tagh is called:
    1) Mongolian plateau
    2) Dzungarian Basin
    3) Tsaidam Basin
    4) Tarim Basin
    Click For ANSWER 
    112.The chief centre for tin smelting in South-east Asia is :
    1) Java
    2) Sumatra
    3) Myanmar
    4) Singapore
    Click For ANSWER 
    113.The name of highest mountain in Africa is :
    1) Mt. Cameroon
    2) Mt. Kilimanjaro
    3) Mt. Elgon
    4) Mt. Kenya
    Click For ANSWER 
    114. In India, the annual rainfall variability is above 60% in the State of :
    1) Gujarat
    2) Arunachal Pradesh
    3) Assam
    4) Manipur
    Click For ANSWER 
    115.In India among the given states below, in which state Manganese ore production is high?
    1) Maharashtra
    2) Andhra Pradesh
    3) Orissa
    4) Karnataka
    Click For ANSWER 
    116. In Andhra Pradesh, the Kesoram Cements is located in the district of :
    1) Karimnagar
    2) Vijayanagaram
    3) Ranga Reddy
    4) Kadapa
    Click For ANSWER 
    117.Among the given basins in India, in which basin the groundwater potential is found high?
    1) Narmada
    2) Krishna
    3) Godavari
    4) Cauvery
    Click For ANSWER 
    118.Maihan Dam has been constructed across the River :
    1) Bokaro
    2) Barakar
    3) Damodar
    4) Konar
    Click For ANSWER 
    119.Nicolaus Copernicus was the 16th Century :
    1) Astronomer
    2) Mathematician
    3) Navigator
    4) Philosopher
    Click For ANSWER 
    120.Annapurna, one of the highest mountains in the World is in :
    1) India
    2) Tibet
    3) Bhutan
    4) Nepal
    Click For ANSWER 
    121. The Indian girl, who got a rare honour to address World leaders at the United Nations Summit on Climate Change was :
    1) Anjana Sharma
    2) Yugratna Srivastava
    3) Soumya Bhattacharjee
    4) Pratiksha Chakravarthy
    Click For ANSWER 
    122.Chandrayan II is designed jointly by India and :
    1) Japan
    2) Germany
    3) Russia
    4) France
    Click For ANSWER 
    123.Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of India is :
    1) S.H. Kapadia
    2) A.R. Dave
    3) D.S.R. Varma
    4) K.G. Balakrishnan
    Click For ANSWER 
    124.India launched the Census, 2011 on :
    1) 1st January, 2010
    2) 1st February, 2010
    3) 1st March, 2010
    4) 1st April, 2010
    Click For ANSWER 
    125.The General Elections in Great Britain were held on :
    1) 5th May, 2010
    2) 6th May, 2010
    3) 7th May, 2010
    4) 8th May, 2010
    Click For ANSWER 

    126.The ICC World Women's Twenty-20, Champion 2010 is :
    1) India
    2) Sri Lanka
    3) Australia
    4) New Zealand
    Click For ANSWER 
    127. Millennium's longest Annular Solar eclipse occurred on :
    1) 15th January, 2010
    2) 16th January, 2010
    3) 17th January, 2010
    4) 18th January, 2010
    Click For ANSWER 
    128.Agni-I ballistic missile which was test-fired in March, 2010 has a range of :
    1) 300 km
    2) 500 km
    3) 700 km
    4) 900 km
    Click For ANSWER 
    129.Viswanathan Anand won the FIDE World Chess Championship by defeating :
    1) Boiko Borisov
    2) Veselin Topalov
    3) Dinara Safina
    4) Ana Ivanovic
    Click For ANSWER 
    130.Shyam Saran of Kalpa village of Kinnaur district was honoured by Navin Chavla, Chief Election
    Commissioner of India in Himachal Pradesh on 12th June, 2010 as he happened to be :
    1) One of the senior citizens of India
    2) One of the voters casting his vote in all the elections
    3) One of the first few voters of Pre-independent India
    4) One of the first few voters of Independent India
    Click For ANSWER 

    131.Swayamsidha Scheme launched in the year 2002 was dedicated to:
    1) Women's Literacy
    2) Women's Health
    3) Women's Empowerment
    40 Women's Welfare
    Click For ANSWER 
    132.The winner of the Gold Medal at the Second World Sand Sculpture Championship is :
    1) Sudarsan Pattnaik
    2) Someswar Pathak
    3) Goutham Prasad
    4) Harischandra Mukharjee
    Click For ANSWER 
    133.The Nobel Prize in Literature for 2009 is awarded to :
    1) Olivers Williamson
    2) Herta Mueller
    3) Elinor Ostrom
    4) Thomas Steitz
    Click For ANSWER 
    134.The winner of the Spelling Bee Prize, 2010 in Washington held on 4th June 2010 is :
    1) Sameer Mishra
    2) Kavya Shivashankar
    3) Anamika Veeramani
    4) Shantanu Srivastav
    Click For ANSWER 
    135.The Sakshara Bharat Scheme introduced by Government of India will be in operation upto :
    1) March, 2011
    2) March, 2012
    3) March, 2015
    4) March, 2020
    Click For ANSWER 
    136.The first set of Identify Numbers as per the Unique Identification Authority of India will be issued in :
    1) February, 2011
    2) July, 2011
    3) January, 2012
    4) June, 2012
    Click For ANSWER 
    137.The opening match of the FIFA 2010 World Cup was played between :
    1) South Africa and Mexico
    2) South Africa and Nigeria
    3) South Africa and America
    4) South Africa and England
    Click For ANSWER 
    138.Earth Hour is a global event organised by :
    1) Bureau of Energy Efficiency
    2) United Nations
    3) European Union
    4) World Wide Fund for Nature/World Wildlife Fund
    Click For ANSWER 
    139.The 15th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement was held in :
    1) Cuba
    2) Egypt
    3) Sri Lanka
    4) India
    Click For ANSWER 
    140.Smile Pinki, a documentary film won the :
    1) Oscar award
    2) Nobel award
    3) Dada Saheb Phalke award
    4) Bhatnagar award
    Click For ANSWER 
    141.In which of the following subjects were the Vedic Aryans not preficient?
    1) Astronomy
    2) Mathematics
    3) Chemistry
    4) Medicine
    Click For ANSWER 
    142.Which of the Pallava rulers is known as 'Vichitrachitta'?
    1) Mahendravarman
    2) Parameswaravarman
    3) Narasimhavarman I
    4) Narasimhavarman II
    Click For ANSWER 
    143.Jayapa Senani composed 'Nrittaratnavali' during the reign of :
    1) Rudradeva
    2) Ganapatideva
    3) Rudramadevi
    4) Pratapa Rudra
    Click For ANSWER 
    144.Harappan people had close external contact with :
    1) Iran
    2) Egypt
    3) Bahrain
    4) Mesopotamia
    Click For ANSWER 
    145.Which Vedic text first refers to moneylending?
    1) Atharvaveda
    2) Yajurveda
    3) Satapatha Brahmana
    4) Gopatha Brahmana
    Click For ANSWER 

    146.In the Chola Kingdom, a very large village administered as a single unit was called :
    1) Kurram
    2) Kottam
    3) Nadu
    4) Taniyur
    Click For ANSWER 
    147.The state-pormoted canal irrigation system was initiated by :
    1) Alauddin Khalji
    2) Ghyasuddin Tughlaq
    3) Firuz Tughlaq
    4) Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq
    Click For ANSWER 
    148.The Vijayanagar King who totally withdrew the marriage tax was :
    1) Krishnadevaraya
    2) Devaraya II
    3) Achyutaraya
    4) Sadasivaraya
    Click For ANSWER 
    149.The style of vocal Hindustani music which was non-Islamic in character was :
    1) Taraka
    2) Khayal
    3) Gawwalis
    4) Dhrupad
    Click For ANSWER 
    150.At the time of his coronation at Kalanaur the age of Akbar was :
    1) Fifteen
    2) Fourteen
    3) Twenty
    4) Eighteen
    Click For ANSWER 

    NOTE: If you find any mistakes in the above key, please leave a comment below so that  we can correct our mistakes, if any. 

    You can download this Group 1 Preliminary Exam, 2010 Question paper here.

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