No change in the Prelims Exam date

The Andhra Pradesh Public Service Commission has announced today that there will be no change in the Group 1 Preliminary Exam date. They sounded determined to conduct the examination with police protection if necessary.

Most of the candidates must have gone off course for the past 4-5 days. But now that the date is not changed, it is time for all of you to get into the track again. Remember these are the crucial moments which reflect in the result of the examination. Don't worry even if you have not read anything in the past two days. It doesn't matter much. Keep your cool now, calm your nerves and get back to business.

The aspirants of Telangana region should be very careful during the day of the exam. Reach the examination center one hour before time.... just in case there are any mishaps. Keep in mind that any small mishap will ruin your life. So avoid the main roads and use the small streets while going to the Examination Center and keep an extra pencil, pen and an extra copy of Hall Ticket so that even if there is any riot you will have a back up.

All the best to all our aspirants. Wish you success.

Ten Most Populous Countries

  1. China
  2. India
  3. USA
  4. Indonesia
  5. Brazil
  6. Pakistan
  7. Bangladesh
  8. Nigeria
  9. Russia
  10. Japan

Commonwealth Games 2010

  • CWG occur every 4 years
  • 3rd most popular multisport event (next to Olympics & Asian Games).
  • 1st CWG - 1930 - Hamilton, Ontario, Canda.
  • 18th CWG - 2006 - Melbourne, Australia.
  • 19th CWG - 2010 - New Delhi, India
  • 20th CWG - 2014 - Glasgow, Scotland.
  • Commonwealth Nations - 54
  • CWG Teams - 71
  • Head of Commonwealth - Queen Elizabeth II
  • Secretary General of Commonwealth - Kamalesh Sharma

19th Commonwealth Games, 2010:
  • Motto - "Humanity, Equality, Destiny"
  • Mascot - Shera
  • 17 Sports & 4 Parasports will be held.
  • Additional Games in 2010 are Archery & Tennis.
  • CWG Organising Committee Chairman - Suresh Kalmadi.
  • Schedule - October 3rd - 14th, 2010.

Ten Largest Countries

  1. Russia
  2. Canada
  3. China
  4. USA
  5. Brazil
  6. Australia
  7. India
  8. Argentina
  9. Kazakhsthan
  10. Sudan

Yashpal Panel Higher Education
Raghavan Committee Ragging
Sachar Committe Social, Economical and Educational status of Muslims
Ranganath Mishra Commission 15% Reservation to Muslims
Liberhan Commission Babri Masjid Demolition
Kakodkar Committee IIT Reforms
Soli Sorabjee Committee Police Reforms
B.K.Chaturvedi Committee Domestic Oil Pricing Policy
Punchi Commission Center-State ties
Sarkaria Commission Center-State relations & Balance of power
Balwantrai Mehta Committee Community Development Program (recommended Panchayati Raj)
Ashok Mehta Committee 2-tier Panchayat Raj System
Jivanlal Kapur Commission Gandhi Murder Case
Shah Nawaz Committee (1956) Death of Subhash Chandra Bose
Khosla Commission (1970) Death of Subhash Chandra Bose
Mukherjee Commission (1999) Death of Subhash Chandra Bose
Kaka Kalelkar Commission (1955) 1st commission on Backward Classes
Mandal Commission (1979) OBC Quota & other Reservations
Nanavati Commission 1984 Anti Sikh riots
U.C.Banerjee Panel 2002 Godhra riots
Nanavati Mehta Committee 2002 Godhra riots
J.C.Shah Commission Indian Emergency 1975-77


Commissions Chairman
Central Vigilance Commission Pratyusha Sinha
Finance Commission Vijay Kelkar
Planning Commission PM (Deputy Chairman - Montek Singh Ahluwalia)
National Commission for Women Girija Vyas
National Commission for Minorities Md.Shafi Qureshi
National Human Rights Commission K.G.Balakrishnan
National Knowledge Commission Sam Pitroda
1st Administrative Reforms Commission Morarji Desai
2nd Administrative Reforms Commission V.Ramachandran


    A committee is a group of people who meet and deliberate according to fixed rules in order to make a decision or produce a document as a group. A commission is a group of people who are entrusted (that is the etymology) by a government to carry out a task. Sometimes the task is a specific one (like ascertaining a particular fact or resolving a particular problem) and sometimes the task is more long-term. A commission is usually distinct from other kinds of agency in two ways: it has no single, permanent administrator, and it has no independent or constitutional authority of its own—it operates under the authority of another part of the government. Of course, a commission can be a committee, but very few committees are commissions, and some commissions are not committees.

    The defining difference is that a committee is part of a larger organization. A commission is an independent group. A commission is a group of people appointed either by the law, a corporation or any other higher authority to enforce established procedures or discuss specific issues. A committe, on the other hand, can be formed by anyone to address any issue of their choice. 


    Parliamentary Committees

    The functions of Parliament are not only varied in nature, but considerable in volume. The time at its disposal is limited. It cannot make very detailed scrutiny of all legislative and other matters that come up before it. A good deal of Parliamentary business is, therefore, transacted in the committees.

    Both Houses of Parliament have a similar committee structure, with a few exceptions. Their appointment, terms of office, functions and procedure of conducting business are also more or less similar and are regulated as per rules made by the two Houses under Article 118(1) of the Constitution.

    Broadly, Parliamentary Committees are of two kinds - Standing Committees and ad hoc Committees. The former are elected or appointed every year or periodically and their work goes on, more or less, on a continuous basis. The latter are appointed on an ad hoc basis as need arises and they cease to exist as soon as they complete the task assigned to them.

    Standing Committees: Among the Standing Committees, the three Financial Committees - Committees on Estimates, Public Accounts and Public Undertakings - constitute a distinct group as they keep an unremitting vigil over Government expenditure and performance. While members of the Rajya Sabha are associated with Committees on Public Accounts and Public Undertakings, the members of the Committee on Estimates are drawn entirely from the Lok Sabha.

    The Estimates Committee reports on 'what economies, improvements in organisation, efficiency or administrative reform consistent with policy underlying the estimates' may be effected. It also examines whether the money is well laid out within limits of the policy implied in the estimates and suggests the form in which estimates shall be presented to Parliament. The Public Accounts Committee scrutinises appropriation and finance accounts of Government and reports of the Comptroller and Auditor-General. It ensures that public money is spent in accordance with Parliament's decision and calls attention to cases of waste, extravagance, loss or nugatory expenditure. The Committee on Public Undertakings examines reports of the Comptroller and Auditor-General, if any. It also examines whether public undertakings are being run efficiently and managed in accordance with sound business principles and prudent commercial practices.

    Besides these three Financial Committees, the Rules Committee of the Lok Sabha recommended setting-up of 17 Department Related Standing Committees (DRSCs). Accordingly, 17 Department Related Standing Committees were set up on 8 April 1993. In July 2004, rules were amended to provide for the constitution of seven more such committees, thus raising the number of DRSCs from 17 to 24. The functions of these Committees are:
    1. to consider the Demands for Grants of various Ministries/Departments of Government of India and make reports to the Houses;
    2. to examine such Bills as are referred to the Committee by the Chairman, Rajya Sabha or the Speaker, Lok Sabha, as the case may be, and make reports thereon;
    3. to consider Annual Reports of ministries/departments and make reports thereon; and
    4. to consider policy documents presented to the Houses, if referred to the Committee by the Chairman, Rajya Sabha or the Speaker, Lok Sabha, as the case may be, and make reports thereon.
    Other Standing Committees in each House, divided in terms of their functions, are
    1. Committees to Inquire:


      1. Committee on Petitions examines petitions on bills and on matters of general public interest and also entertains representations on matters concerning subjects in the Union List; and
      2. Committee of Privileges examines any question of privilege referred to it by the House or Speaker/Chairman;
    2. Committees to Scrutinise:


      1. Committee on Government Assurances keeps track of all the assurances, promises, undertakings, etc., given by Ministers in the House and pursues them till they are implemented;
      2. Committee on Subordinate Legislation scrutinises and reports to the House whether the power to make regulations, rules, sub-rules, bye-laws, etc., conferred by the Constitution or Statutes is being properly exercised by the delegated authorities; and
      3. Committee on Papers Laid on the Table examines all papers laid on the table of the House by Ministers, other than statutory notifications and orders which come within the purview of the Committee on Subordinate Legislation, to see whether there has been compliance with the provisions of the Constitution, Act, rule or regulation under which the paper has been laid;
    3. Committees relating to the day-today business of the House:


      1. Business Advisory Committee recommends allocation of time for items of Government and other business to be brought before the Houses;
      2. Committee on Private Members’ Bills and Resolutions of the Lok Sabha classifies and allocates time to Bills introduced by private members, recommends allocation of time for discussion on private members’ resolutions and examines Constitution amendment bills before their introduction by private members in the Lok Sabha. The Rajya Sabha does not have such a committee. It is the Business Advisory Committee of that House which recommends allocation of time for discussion on stage or stages of private members’ bills and resolutions;
      3. Rules Committee considers matters of procedure and conduct of business in the House and recommends amendments or additions to the Rules; and
      4. Committee on Absence of Members from the Sittings of the House of the Lok Sabha considers all applications from members for leave or absence from sittings of the House. There is no such Committee in the Rajya Sabha. Applications from members for leave or absence are considered by the House itself;
    4. Committee on the Welfare of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, on which members from both Houses serve, considers all matters relating to the welfare of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes which come within the purview of the Union Government and keeps a watch whether constitutional safeguards in respect of these classes are properly implemented;
    5. Committees concerned with the provision of facilities to members:


      1. General Purposes Committee considers and advises Speaker/Chairman on matters concerning affairs of the House, which do not appropriately fall within the purview of any other Parliamentary Committee; and
      2. House Committee deals with residential accommodation and other amenities for members;
    6. Joint Committee on Salaries and Allowances of Members of Parliament, constituted under the Salary, Allowances and Pension of Members of Parliament Act, 1954, apart from framing rules for regulating payment of salary, allowances and pension to Members of Parliament, also frames rules in respect of amenities like medical, housing, telephone, postal, constituency and secretarial facility;
    7. Joint Committee on Offices of Profit examines the composition and character of committees and other bodies appointed by the Central and State governments and Union Territories Administrations and recommends what offices ought to or ought not to disqualify a person from being chosen as a member of either House of Parliament;
    8. The Library Committee consisting of members from both Houses, considers matters concerning the Library of Parliament;
    9. On 29 April 1997, a Committee on Empowerment of Women with members from both the Houses was constituted with a view to securing, among other things, status, dignity and equality for women in all fields;
    10. On 4 March 1997, the Ethics Committee of the Rajya Sabha was constituted. The Ethics Committee of the Lok Sabha was constituted on 16 May 2000.
    Ad hoc Committees: Such Committees may be broadly classified under two heads:
    1. committees which are constituted from time to time, either by the two Houses on a motion adopted in that behalf or by Speaker/Chairman to inquire into and report on specific subjects, (e.g., Committees on the Conduct of certain Members during President's Address, Committees on Draft Five-Year Plans, Railway Convention Committee, Committee on Members of Parliament Local Area Development Scheme, Joint Committee on Bofors Contracts, Joint Committee on Fertilizer Pricing, Joint Committee to enquire into irregularities in securities and banking transactions, Joint Committee on Stock Market Scam, Joint Committees on Security in Parliament Complex, Committee on Provision of Computers for Members of Parliament, Offices of Political Parties and Officers of the Lok Sabha Secretariat; Committee on Food Management in Parliament House Complex; Committee on Installation of Portraits/Statues of National Leaders and Parliamentarians in Parliament House Complex, etc.), and
    2. Select or Joint Committees on Bills which are appointed to consider and report on a particular Bill. These Committees are distinguishable from the other ad hoc committees inasmuch as they are concerned with Bills and the procedure to be followed by them as laid down in the Rules of Procedure and Directions by the Speaker/Chairman.


    Further Reading :

    A commission has powers delegated from above to it and is given a task to perform. Its terms of reference are relatively specific, even though these may be very broad or very narrow. Representativeness is not a relevant criterion for a commission.

    A committee is a more horizontal grouping of appointees for co-decision making. The emphasis is more “how are we going to do this?”. Committees operate according to formalised rules of procedure. 

    A panel has no powers, and will simply advise a decision-making body. It is usually composed of experts who may be external to the organisation of the decision-making body. Members should be chosen on the basis of their expertise. Representativeness is not a relevant criterion.

    A working group is conceptually similar to a committee, yet more informal, temporary and ad hoc. Its members are the people actually working on the thing that is the subject of its decision-making. The decision-making is more detailed.

    A board is supreme, i.e. it is not subordinate, i.e. it does not receive instructions, but instructs the executive to do things. (e.g. board of directors in a company, board of trustees, board of governors)

    A council is a body of members who are representative of a larger group (typically an electorate). Its decision-making and powers are not relevant criteria. The criterion is solely that it is representative.

    A roundtable exists solely to exchange information through question, answer and discussion among its members. Attendees may be heads of government, journalists, company heads, high-ranking officials. While heads of government may reach agreement around a roundtable, this decision-making is not the relevant criterion for calling the meeting a roundtable. Roundtables are often not recurrent.

    A group (e.g. a G7 meeting, group of wise men = monetary policy experts) is used when there is the need to emphasise equality between members. Its members are independent and not subordinate to any decision the group. The group is not a body having any authority. Agreements may be made, but the emphasis is more on discussion.

    Braintree Current Affairs Material

    Current Affairs Material in English Medium covering from January, 2009 to February, 2010. This Material has been compiled by Braintree Coaching Institute, Hyderabad. 

    This is one of the most reliable material for current Affairs covering almost all the important aspects related to Group 1 Examination. The main advantage is that this is not too large. You can complete this entire Material in 24 hours of study period. We hope it will  be useful to you.

    Note: This is a .rar file and you have to unzip it. In this we have arranged the Material Year-wise and month-wise.

    NOTE: The links are no longer functional. 

    We have uploaded the most up to date available material for Group 1 Examination. We tried to pass it on to you as torrent due to the large size of the content. But, some of our subscribers have complained of trouble downloading the torrents. So, we have uploaded all those files individually into a google site.

    We have arranged the Material in 6 Pages, which you can see in the left side navigation bar. These 6 pages are,

    1. Bit Bank 

    2. Documents

    3. Model Papers

    4. Previous Papers

    5. Study Material

    6. Material for Telugu Medium Students

    ou can visit the site @ https://sites.google.com/site/group1material/home

    Group 1 Prelims Model Paper

    Here we are providing 10 Model Papers of Group 1 Preliminary Examination for your practice. These papers are in Telugu Medium.

    Try to practice darkening the circles in OMR sheet also along with answering these papers. You can take the test online or you can download to your computer.

    All the Best.

    Download Group 1 Prelims Hall Tickets

    The Andhra Pradesh Public Service Commission has provided the download of Hall Tickets of Group 1 Preliminary Examination to be held on 5th September, 2010.


    NOTE; You are required to enter your Reference ID (or) Full Name (or) Date of Birth in order to download the Hall Ticket. 

    Group 1 Hall Tickets

    The Hall Tickets for Group 1 Preliminary Examination to be held on September 5th, 2010 will be available for download from the Andhra Pradesh Public Service Commission Website from tomorrow (25th August). 

    In a press report, the APPSC has announced that the Hall Tickets will not be sent by post and all candidates have to download the Group 1 Hall Tickets from the APPSC Official Website.  Although this has been proved to be a very difficult task for the aspirants from rural areas, the Andhra Pradesh Public Service Commission is going through with the process of online distribution of hall tickets. This option is very effective as an additional means of acquiring hall tickets but not as an alternative. 

    The APPSC has once again showed its reluctance to care for the aspirants. 

    Contrary to whatever rumors in circulation through out the state, it seems unlikely that the Group 1 Preliminary Examination will be postponed once again. he Group 1 Preliminary Examination coinciding with the Teacher's Day has given rise to  a speculation that the exam will be postponed once again. But as of now, the APPSC is determined to conduct the exam on September 5th, 2010. So, you guys stop bothering about the postponement and start preparing seriously. 



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    The following is an audio file consisting of a recording of the discussion of the topics of Paper 4, Section 1, Unit 1 of the Group 1 Mains. Science and Technology is one of the most difficult subjects in Group 1 examinations because most of the students are from Arts background and have a very little knowledge in S&T. But at the same time it is one of the most scoring subjects and hence with a little more effort you have a better chance of standing ahead of others.

    We will be publishing a series of audio files on Science and Technology starting with this topic, Science Policy Resolution, 1958. National Policies of Science and Technology and the changes in policy from time to time. 





    Development of Philosophy, Science and Technology in India and Neighbouring Civilizations: Part 1: History of Indian Science, Technology and Culture (AD ... of Indian Science, Philosophy & Culture)Science, Technology and Medicine in Colonial IndiaHistory of Science and Technology in India

    Download NCERT Text Books from Classes 6th to 12th in a single torrent. Remember reading these books is an integral part of the preparation for Group 1 Examination.

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