Indian Railway Zones

SNo. Railway Zones Head Quarters

1 Central - Mumbai VT

2 Eastern - Kolkata

3 Northern - New Delhi

4 North Eastern - Gorakhpur

5 North-East Frontier - Maligaon - Guwahati

6 Southern - Chennai

7 South Central - Secunderabad

8 South Eastern - Kolkata

9 Western - Mumbai Churchgate

10 East Coast - Bhubaneshwar

11 East Central - Hajipur

12 North Central - Allahabad

13 North Western - Jaipur

14 South Western - Bangalore (Hubli)

15 West Central - Jabalpur

16 SouthEast Central - Bilaspur

Railway Ministers of India

1947 (Nov.) John Mathai (not designated the Minister for Railways?) presents the first Railway budget for independent India


1948-1952 N Gopalaswamy Ayyangar; worked on consolidating the various railways into the zonal railways

1952-1956 Lal Bahadur Shastri; resigned in 1956 taking responsibility for three fatal railway accidents

1956-1962 Jagjivan Ram

1962 Sardar Swaran Singh

1967?? Kengal Hanumanthaiah (Note: Some sources suggest he was Railway Minister later, in 1971). Ram Sew Singh is also mentioned in some sources as a railway minister in 1966-1968, he may not have been a Cabinet minister for railways.

1968 Cheppudira Muthana Poonacha

1969 Govinda Menon Panampilly

1970-1971 Gulzari Lal Nanda Note: Kengal Hanumanthaiah may have been the Railway Minister briefly in 1971.

1972-1973 Tonse Ananth Pai

1973-1975 Lalit Narayan Mishra; killed by a bomb blast 2-Jan-1975, at the opening of a railway line in Samastipur.

1975-1977 Kamlapati Tripathi (again briefly in 1980?)

1977-1979 Prof. Madhu Dandavate

1980-1981 Kedar Pandey (Kamlapathi Tripathi briefly in 1980)

(1981?) 1982-1984 ABA Ghani Khan Chowdhury.

1984 Bansi Lal; his was a brief stint during a reorganization of some ministries and government departments

(1985?) 1984-1989 Madhav Rao Scindia

1989-1990 George Fernandes

1990-1991 Jnaneshwar Mishra; very short tenure

1991-1995 C K Jaffer Sharief

1995-1996 Suresh Kalmadi (briefly), followed by Atal Behari Vajpayee also briefly, who held the Railways portfolio along with being PM.o

1996-1998 Ram Vilas Paswan

1998-1999 Nitish Kumar

2000 Mamata Banerjee

2001-2004 Nitish Kumar

2004- 2009 Laloo Prasad Yadav

2009 - Mamata Banerjee

Moon - Some Facts

Average distance from Earth - 3,84,365 km


Diameter - 3,476 km

Ratio of diameter of moon to that of earth - 1 : 3.7

Rotation speed - 27 days, 2hrs, 43 min & 11.47Sec.

Revolution Speed - 27 days, 7hrs, 43 min & 11.47 Sec.

Time taken by moonlight to reach earth - 1.3 Sec

Percent of surface visible from earth - 59%

First man to reach moon - Neil Armstrong and Edvin Aldrin on Apollo XI (1969)

List of Speakers of Indian Parliament

1. G.V. Mavlankar - May 15, 1952 - February 27, 1956 Indian National Congress


2. M. A. Ayyangar - March 8, 1956 - April 16, 1962 Indian National Congress

3. Sardar Hukam Singh - April 17, 1962 - March 16, 1967 Indian National Congress

4. N. Sanjiva Reddy - March 17, 1967 - July 19, 1969 Indian National Congress

5. G.S. Dhillon - August 8, 1969 - December 1, 1975 Indian National Congress

6. Bali Ram Bhagat - January 15, 1976 - March 25, 1977 Indian National Congress

7. N. Sanjiva Reddy,- March 26, 1977 - July 13, 1977 Janata Party

8. K.S. Hegde - July 21, 1977 - January 21, 1980 Janata Party

9. Balram Jakhar - January 22, 1980 - December 18, 1989 Indian National Congress

10. Rabi Ray - December 19, 1989 - July 9, 1991 Janata Dal

11. Shivraj Patil - July 10, 1991 - May 22, 1996 Indian National Congress

12. P.A. Sangma - May 25, 1996 - March 23, 1998 Indian National Congress

13. G.M.C. Balayogi - March 24, 1998 - March 3, 2002 Telugu Desam Party

14. Manohar Joshi - May 10, 2002 - June 2, 2004 Shiv Sena

15. Somnath Chatterjee - June 4, 2004 - May 2009, Communist Party of India-Marxist

16. Ms.Meera Kumar - the Present Speaker.
Some points to note:

1)Ganesh Vasudev Mavalankar (died 27 February 1956) popularly known as Dadasaheb was an independence activist and the first Speaker of the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Parliament of India.

2)Mavalankar hailed from Marathi background but lived and worked in Ahmedabad, capital of Gujarat. He was a colleague and close friend of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.

Mavalankar joined the Indian Independence Movement with the Non-Cooperation Movement. Although he temporarily joined the Swaraj Party in the 1920s, he returned to Mahatma Gandhi and the Salt Satyagraha in 1930.

In 1952, after the first general elections in independent India, G.V. Mavalankar was elected the Speaker of the Lok Sabha. He died in office in 1956.

3)Neelam Sanjeev Reddy --He was the only non-Congress candidate to get elected from Andhra Pradesh. He was unanimously elected Speaker of the Lok Sabha on March 26, 1977.

He was elected President by the electoral college in July 1977, and was the only person to be elected President of India unopposed.

International Years

*2001 - International Year of Volunteers


* 2001 - United Nations Year of Dialogue among Civilizations

* 2002 - International Year of Ecotourism

* 2002 - International Year of Mountains

* 2002 - United Nations Year for Cultural Heritage

* 2003 - International Year of Freshwater

* 2003 - European Disability Year

* 2004 - International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition



* 2004 - International Year of Rice

* 2005 - International Year for Sport and Physical Education

* 2005 - International Year of Microcredit

* 2005 - World Year of Physics (declared by IUPAP)

* 2006 - International Year of Deserts and Desertification , recognized by the UN



* 2007 - (International) Year of the Dolphin - ( http://www.yod2007.org) by the

United Nations and UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme)

International Boundaries of India

1 Bordering Pakistan  - Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat.


2 Bordering China  - Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh.

3 Bordering Nepal  - Bihar, Uttaranchal, UP, Sikkim, West Bengal

4 Bordering Bangladesh  - West Bengal, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Tripura, Assam

5 Bordering Bhutan  - West Bengal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam

6 Bordering Myanmar  - Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram

7 Bordering Afghanistan  - Jammu and Kashmir (Pakistan - occupied area)

U.P.S.C. (C.S.E.) GENERAL STUDIES - 2005(PRELIMINARY)


Time Allowed: Two.Hours Maximum Marks: 150


1. According to Census 2001, which one of the following Indian States has themaximum population in India after Uttar Pradesh?


(a) West Bengal (b) Maharashtra(c) Bihar (d) Tamil Nadu


2. Itaipu Dam built art the River Parana is one of the largest dams in theworld. Which one of the following two countries have this as a joint project?


(a) Brazil and Peru (b) Paraguay and Ecuador

(c) Brazil and Paraguay (d) Colombia and Paraguay



3. Consider the following statements:


1. There are 25 High Courts in India

2. Punjab, Haryana and the' Union Territory of Chandigarh have a commonHigh Court.

3. National Capital Territory of Delhi has a High Court of its own.

Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?

(a) 2 and 3 (b) 1 and 2(c) 1, 2 and 3 (p) 3 only



4. Which one of the following cities is not a former capital of the given country(Country given in the brackets)?

(a) Karachi (Pakistan) (b) Auckland (New Zealand)

(c) Kyoto Japan) (d) Brisbane (Australia)


5. Consider the following statements:


1. Total land area of Earth is approximately 1475 lakh square kilometres.

2. Ratio of land area to water area of Earth is approximately 1 : 4.

3. Maximum percentage of Earth's water is in the Pacific Ocean.


Which of the stateinentsgiven above is/ are correct?

(a) 1 ai1d 3 (b) 2 and 3 .(c) 1 only (d) 3 only



6. Consider the following statements:


1. Kyoto Protocol came into force in the year 2005.

2. Kyoto Protocol deals primarily with the depletion of the Ozone layer.

3. Methane as a greenhouse gas is more harmful than carbon dioxide.


Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?

(a) 1 and 2 (b) 1 and 3(e) 1 only (d) 3 only


7. Which one of the following pairs is not correctly matched?

(a) Seikan Rail Tunnel: China

(b) Petronas Towers: Malaysia

(c) Appalachian Trail : United States of America

(d) Rogun Dam : Tajikistan




8. Which one of the following is the correct sequence of the given Continents inthe decreasing order of their percentage of Earth's land?

(a) North America - Africa - South America – Europe

(b) Africa - North America - South America – Europe

(c) North America - Africa - Europe - South America

(d) Africa - North America - Europe - South America



9. Match items in the List - I with List-II and select the correct answer usingthe codes given below the lists:

List-I (Country) List-II (Name of Parliament)

A. Netherlands 1. Diet

B. Ukraine 2. States General

C. Poland 3. Supreme Council

D. Japan 4. Sejm

(a) 4 1 2 3 (b) 2 3 4 1(c) 4 3 2 1 (d) 2 1 4 3


10. For which one of the following countries, is Spanish not an official language?


(a) Chile (b) Colombia(c) Republic of Congo (d) Cuba


11. Who along the following is not a recipient of the Bharat Ratna Award? .

(a) Us tad Bismillah Khan (b) Satyajit Ray

(c) Lata Mangeshkar (d) Raj Kapoor



12. Match List-l with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes givenbelow the lists:

List-I (National Park/Wild-life Sanctuary)

A. Sondla Wildlife SanctuaryB. Kangerghat National ParkC. Orang SanctuaryD. Ushakothi Wildlife SanctuaryList-II (State)

1. Orissa2. Assam3. Chhqttisgarh4. Goa5. Tripura


(a) 2 1 5 3 (b) 4 3 2 1(c) 2 3 5 1 (d) 4 1 2 3


13. Which party was founded by Subhash Chandra' Bose in the year 1939 afterhe broke away from the Congress?


(a) Indian Freedom Party (b) Azad Hind Fauj(c) Revolutionary Front (d) Forward Block



14. Who among the following is the President of the FICCI?


(a) Sunil Mittal (b) Brijmohan Lal !vhinjal(c) Onkar S. Kunwar (d) Vivek Burman .


15. Consider the following statements:

1. During the year 2004, India's foreign exchange reserves did not exceed the125 billion U.s. Dollar mark.

2. The series of index numbers of wholesale prices introduced from April, 2000has the year 1993-94 as base year.Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?

(a) 1 only (b) 2 only(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2



16. Consider the following statements:

1. Anhydrous sodiun carbonate is commonly known as baking soda.

2. Baking soda is used in fire extinguishers.

3. Bleaching powder is manufactured in Hasenclever plant.


Which of the statements given above is/are correct (a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 2 and 3(c) 3 only (d) I and 2



17. Consider the following statements:


1. A geQstationary satellite is at an approximate height of 10,000 km.

2. FM transmission of music is of very good quality because the atmospheric orman-made noises which are generally frequency variations can do 'littleharm.

Which of the statemeents given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only (b) 2 only(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2



18. What is the order of magnitude of electric resistance of the human body(dry)?

(a) 102 ohm (b) 104 ohm(c) 106 ohm (d) 108 ohm



19. Consider the following statements:

1. The axis of the earth's magnetic field is inclined at 231/2° to the geographicaxis of the earth.

2. The earth's magnetic pole in the northern hemisphere is located on apeninsula in northern Canada.

3. Earth's magnetiC equator passes through Thumba in South lridia.

Which ofthe statements given above is/ are correct?

(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 2 and 3(c) 2 only (d) 3 only


20. Which one of the following is the landmark performance of Dr. V. MohanReddy, an Indian born doctor working in U.S.A., during February, 2005? .

(a) Research on human stem cell which is likely to revolutionise treatment ofdeadly disease like cancer

(b) Successful open heart procedure called arterial switch performed on an infant

(c) Research on genetic engineering which can help in treatment of deadlydisease like AIDS

(d) Successful brain surgery to revive the function of nearly dead brain of apremature born infant


21. Pneumoconiosis afflicts the workers who work mainly in:

(a) Tanneries (b) Coal mining industry(c) Distilleries (d) Glass industry


22. Who among the following was not a contemporary of the other three?

(a) Bimbsara (b) Gautama Buddha(c) Milinda (d) Prasenjit


23. Consider the following statements:The Government of India Act, 1935 provided for

1. the provincial autonomy.

2. the establishment of Federal Court.

3. All India Federation at the ceph'e.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

(a) 1 and 2 (b) 2 aVId 3(c) 1 and 3 (d) 1, 2 and 3



24. Consider the' following statements:

1. Warren Hastings was the first Governor General who established a regularpolice force in India on the British pattern.

2. A Supreme Court was established at Calcutta by the Regulating Act, 1773. .

3. The Indian Penal Code came into effect in the year 1860.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

(a) 1 and 2 (b) 2 and 3(c) 1 and 3 (d) 1, 2 and 3



25. Which one of the following is the correct chronological order of the battlefought in India in the 18th Century?

(a) Battle of Wandiwash - Battle of Buxar - Battle of Ambur - Battle of Plassey

(b) Battle of Ambur - Battle of Plassey - Battle of Wandiwash - Battle of Buxar

(c) Battle of Wandiwash - Battle of Plassey - Battle of Ambur - Battle of Buxar

(d) Battle of Ambur - Battle of Buxar - Battle of Wandiwash - Battle of Plassey



26. Which countries played in the Lawn Tennis Davis Cup Final in the year2004?

(a) Switzerland and United States of America(b) Spain and United States of America(c) Australia and Argentina(d) Sweden and Belgium27. Where do the Sahariya tribals, who were recently in the news, live?'(a) Andhra Pradesh (b) Assam(c) Rajasthan (d) Orissa28. Whose autobiography is the book "My Music, My Life"?(a) Pandit Shiv Kun~ar Sharma (b) Ustad Amjad Ali Khan(c) Pandit Ravi S.harlkar (d) Ustad Zakir Hussain29. Consider the following statements:1. India is the onl1 country in the world producing all the five knowncommercial varieties of silk.2. India is the largest producer ot sugar in the world. Which of the stateJt\entsgiven above is/ are correct?(a) I only (b) 2 only(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 230. Which one of the following pairs is not.correctly matched?(a) Arjul1 : Indigenously produced Main Battle Tank (MBT)(b) Phalcon : Cruise missile supplied by Russia to India .(c) Saras : Indigenously developed civilian passenger aircraft(d) Operation Seabird: New Indian Naval Base at Karwar31. Match items in the List- I with List-II and select the correct answer usingthe codes given below the lists:List-I (Power Station) List-II (State)A. Kothagudem 1. Andhra PradeshB. Raichur 2. GujaratC. Mettur 3. KarnatakaD. Wanakbori 4. Tamil Nadu.A B C D AB CD(a) 4 2 1 3 (b) 1 3 4 2(c) 4 3 1 2 (d) 1 2 4 332. For which one of the following, is Satara well-known?(a) Thermal power plant (b) Wind energy plant(c) Hydro-electric plant (d) Nuclear power plant33. Which one of the following companies has started a rural marketingnetwork called 'e-chaupals'?(a) ITC (b) Dabur(c) Proctor and Gamble (d) Hindustan Lever34. Which one of the following statements is not correct?(a) Rourkela Steel Plant, the first integrated steel plant in the Public Sector ofIndia was set up with the Soviet Union collaboration(b) Salem Steel Plant is a premier producer of stainless steel in India(c) Maharashtra Elektrosmelt Ltd. is a subsidiary of the Steel Authority of IndiaLtd.(d) Visakhapatnam Steel Plant is a unit of the Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Ltd.35. Match List- I with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes givenbelow the lists:List-I (Person) List-II (Organization)A.. V. R. S. Natrajan 1. Bharat Heavy Electricals LimitedB. A. K. Puri 2. Air IndiaC. V. Thulasidas 3. Maruti Udyog LimitedD. Jagdish Khattar 4. Bharat Earth Movers Limited5. Indian Space Research OrganizationA B C D A B C D(a) 2 3 5 1 (b) 4 1 2 3(c) 2 1 5 3 (d) 4 3 2 136. Which one of the following is the correct statement?(a) The modern Kochi was a Dutch colony till India's Independence(b) The Dutch defeated the Portuguese and built Fort Williams in the modernKochi(c) The modern Kochi was first a Dutch colony before the Portuguese took overfrom them(d) The modern Kochi never became a part of the British colony37. Which one of the following was probed by the Liberhan Commission?(a) Test Cricket match fixing (b) Best Bakery Case(c) Tehelka tapes Case(d) Demolition of the disputed structure at Ayodhya38. Which one of the following airports in India is the first to be owned by apublic limited company?(a) Dabolim Airport, Goa (b) Cochin airport(c) Hyderabad airport (d) Bangalore airport39. Consider the following sites/monuments :1. Champaner - Pavagadh Archaeological Park2. Chhatrapati Shivaji Railway Station, Mumbai3. MamalIapuram4. Sun Temple (Konark Temple)Which of the above are included in the World Heritage List of UNESCO?(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1, 3 and 4(c) 2 and 4 (d) 1, 2, 3 and 440. Which one of the following pairs is not correctly matched?(a) Bahamas Nassau(b) Costa Rica San Jose(c) Nicaragua Belmopan(d) Dominican Republic Santo Domingo41. Which one of the following is the correct sequence of the given towns ofPakistan while moving from the North towards the South?(a) Islamabad - Gujranwala - Peshawar – Multan(b) Peshawar - Gujranwala - Multan – Islamabad(c) Peshawar - Islamabad - Gujranwala - Multan(d) Islamabad - Multan - Peshawar - Gujranwala42. Where are the Balearic Islands located?(a) Mediterranean Sea (b) Black Sea(c) Baltic Sea (d) North Sea43. Which one of the following countries does not border Lithuania?(a) Poland (b) Ukraine(c) Belarus (d) Latvia44. Match List - I (Distinguished Person) with List-II (Achievement/Known as)and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:List-IIA. Guenter Grass 1. First woman Prime Minister of CanadaB. Trevor Huddleston 2. Nobel Prize Winner for literatureC. Dicky Dolma 3. Leading campaigner against apartheid inSouth AfricaD. Kim Campell 4. Youngest woman to climb the Mt. Everest5. American violinistA B C D A B C D(a) 5 3 2 1 (b) 2 3 4 1(c) 5 3 4 2 (d) 2 4 1 345. Consider the following statements:1. The Charter ofthe United Nations Organization was adopted at Geneva,Switzerland in June, 1945.2. India was admitted to the United Nations Organization in the year 1945.3. The Trusteeship Council of the United Nations Organization was establishedto manage the affairs of territories detached from Japan and Italy after theSecond World War or such territories not under the control of a country atthat time. Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 2 only(c) 2 and 3 (d) 3 only46. Match List - I with List-II and select the correct answer using the codesgiven below the lists:List-I (Distinguished Person) List-II (Area, of Work)A B. V. Rao 1. Automobiles ManufactureB. C.K. Prahalad 2. Fisheries EconomyC. John Kurien 3. Information Technology and SoftwareD. Kiran Karnik 4. Poultry Farming5. Management ScienceA B C D A B C D(a) 2 5 1 3 (b) 4 3 2 5(c) 2 3 1 5 (d) 4 5 2 347. Consider the following statements:1. The Parliament cannot enlaf!~e the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of Indiaas its jurisdiction is limited to that conferred by the Constitution.2. The officers and servants of the Supreme Court and High If Courts areappointed by the concerned Chief Justice and the administrative expenses arecharged on the Consolidated Fund of India.Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?(a) 1 only (b) 2 only(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 248. Consider the following statements:1. Article 301 pertains to the Right to Property.2. Right to Property is a legal right but not a Fundamental Right.3. Article 300 A was inserted in the Constitution of India by the CongressGovernment at the Centre by the 44th Constitutional Amendment.Which of the statements given above is/are correct?(a) 2 only (b) 2 and 3 .(c) 1 and 3 (d) 1, 2 and 349. Who among the following invented Lasers?(a) Theodore Maiman (b) Denis Papin(c) William Moton (d) Francis Crick50. Consider the following statements:1. Article 371 A to 371 I were inserted in the Constitution of India to meetregional demands of Nagaland, Assam, Manipur, Andhra Pradesh, Sikkim,Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh and Goa.2, Constitutions of India and the United States of America can envisage a dualpolicy (The Union and the States) but a single citizenship.3. A naturalized citizen of India can never be deprived of his citizenship.Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1 and 3(c) 3 only (d) 1 only51. Consider the following statements:I, Part IX of the Constitution of India contains provisions for Panchayats and wasinserted by the Constitution (73rd Amendment) Act, 1992.2. Part IX A of the Constitution of India contains provisions for municipalitiesand the Article 243 Q envisages two types of municipalities - a MunicipalCouncil and a Municipal Corporation for every State.Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?(a) 1 only (b) 2 only(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 252. Consider the following statements:1. Lord Mountbatten was the Viceroy when Simla Conference took place.2. Indian Navy Revok 1946 took place when the Indian sailors in the RoyalIndian Navy at Bombay and Karachi rose against the Government.Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?(a) 1 only (b) 2 only(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 253. Which one of the following territories was not affected by the Revolt of1857? '(a) Jhansi (b) Chittor(c) ]agdishpur (d) Lucknow54. Which one of the following places did Kunwar Singh, a prominent leader ofthe Revolt of 1857 belong to?(a) Bihar (b) Madhya Pradesh(c) Rajasthan (d) Uttar Pradesh55. Which of the following pairs are correctly matched?Mpcementt/Satyagraha Person Actively Associated With1. Champaran Rajendra Prasad2. Ahmedabad Mill Workers Morarji Desai3. Kheda Vallabhbhai Patelselect the correct answer using the codes given below:(a) 1 and 2 (b) 2 and 3(c) 1 and 3 .(d) 1, 2 and 356. Who among the following was 110t associated with the formation of V.P.Kisan Sabha in February 1918?(a) Indra Narain Dwivedi (b) Gauri Shankar Misra(c) Jawaharlal Nehru (d) Madan Mohan Malviya57. Who among the following drafted the resolution on fundamental rights forthe Karachi Session of Congress in 1931?(a) Dr. B. R. Ambedkar (b) PanditJawaharlal Nehru(c) Dr. Rajendra Prasad (d) Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel58. In October 1920, who of the following headed a group of Indians gathered atTashkent to set up a Communist Party of India?(a) H. K. Sarkar (b) P. C. Joshi(c) M. C. Chagla (d) M. N. Roy59. At which Congress Session was the Working Committee authorised tolaunch a programme of Civil Disobedience?(a) Bombay (b) Lahore(c) Lucknow (d) Tripuri60. In which one of the following provinces was a Congress ministry not formedunder the Act of 1935?(a) Bihar (b) Madras(c) Orissa (d) Punjab61. Consider the following statements: On the eve of the launch of Quit IndiaMovement, Mahatma Gandhi1. asked the government servants to resign.2. asked the soldiers to leave their posts.3. asked the Princes of the Princely States to accept the sovereignty of their ownpeople.Which of the statements given above is/are correct?(a) 1 and 2. (b) 2 and 3(c) 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 362. Where were the Ghadar revolutionaties, who became active during theoutbreak of the World War I based?(a) Central America (b) North America'(c) West America (d) South America63. What was Komagata Maru?(a) A political party based in Taiwan (b) Peasant communist lead.er of China(c) A naval ship on voyage to China(d) A Chinese village where Mao Tse Tung began his Long march64. Who among the following was a proponent of Fabianism as a movement?(a) Annie Beasant (b) A. O. Hume(c) Michael Madhusudan Dutt (d) R. Palme Dutt65. Recently, to which of the following countries did India offer to built aBuddhaTemple?(a) China (b) Myanmar(c) Thailand (d) Vietnam66. Which one of the following is not an ASEAN member?(a) Cambodia (b) China'(c) Laos (d) Philippines67. Consider the following:1. Disputes with mobile cellular companies2. Motor accident cases 3. Pension casesFor which of the above are Lok Adalats held?(a) 1 only (b) 1 and 2(c) 2 only (d) I, 2 and 368. Consider the following statements:1. Second World Buddhist Summit was held in Bangkok in November-December, 2004.2. World Punjabi Conference was held in Jalandhar in December, 2004.3. 4th Meeting of the SAARC Trade Ministers was held in Islamabad inNovember, 2004.Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?(a) 3 only (b) 1 and 2(c) 2 and 3 (d) 1, 2 and 369. Consider the following statements:1. The Parliament of Russia is called Federal Assembly.2. The Council of the Federation in the Russian Parliament is the lower house.3. The name of the upper house in the Russian Parliament is State Duma.Which of the statements given above is/ are correct 7(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1 and 2(c) 2 and 3 (d) 1 only70. Consider the following statements:1. Great Britain comprises England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.2. England covers less than 60% of the total area of the United Kingdom:Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?(a) 1 only (b) 2 only(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 271. Consider the following statements:1. During the process of osmosis, the solvent travels from the concentratedsolution to the dilute solution.2. In the reverse osmosis, external pressure is applied to the dilute solution.Which of the statements given above is/ are correct 7(a) I only (b) 2 only(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 272. Consider the following statements:1. Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) has been established by theInternational Development Association (IDA) to provide further assistance tolow-income countries facing high level of indebtedness.2. Singapore Regional Training Institute (STI) is one of the institutes thatprovides training in macroeconomicanalysis and policy, and related subjectsas a part of programme of the IMF Institute.Which of the statements given above is/are correct?(a) 1 Only (b) 2 Only(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 273. Consider the following statements:1. Sensex is based on 50 of the most important stocksavailable on the BombayStock Exchange (BSE).2. For calculating the Sensex, all the Sensex stocks are assigned proportionalweightage.3. New York Stock Exchange- is the oldest stock exchange in the world.Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?(a) 2 only- (b) 1 and 3(c) 2 and 3 (d) None74. Consider the following statements:1. The Headquarters of the International Organization for Standardization arelocated in Rome.2. ISO 9000 relates to the quality management system and standards.3. ISO 14000 relates to environmental management system standards.Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 3 only(c) 2 and 3 (d) None75. Consider the following statements:1. In the First Round Table Conference Dr. Ambedkar demanded separateelectorates for the depressed classes.2. In the Poona Act, special provisions for representation of the depressedpeople in the local bodies and civil services were made.3. The Indian National Congress did not take part in the Third Round TableConference.Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?(a) 1 and 2 (b) 2 and 3(c) 1 and 3 (d) 1, 2 and 376. Consider the following statements:1. lshwar Chandra Vidyasagar founded the Bethune School, at Calcutta with themain aim of encouraging education for women.2. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay was the first graduate of the CalcuttaUniversity.3. Keshav Chandra Sen's campaign against Sati led to the enactment of a law toban Sati by the then Governor General.Which of the statements given above is/ are correct 7(a) 1 only (b) 1 and 2(c) 2 and 3 (d) 1, 2 and 377. Who among the following repealed the Vernacular Press Act?(a) Lord Dufferin (b) Lord Ripon(c) Lord Curzon (d) Lord Hardinge78. Where is the volcanic mountain, Mount St. Helens located?(a) Chile (b) Japan(c) Philippines (d) United States of America79. Which one of the following statements is not correct?(a) The Western Ghats are relatively higher in their northern region(b) The Anai Mudi is the highest peak in the Western Ghats(c) Tapi river lies to the south of Satpura(d) The Narmada and the Tapi river valleys are said to be old rift valleys80. Gandhi Sagar Dam is a part of which one of the following?(a) Chambal Project (b) Kosi Project(c) Damodar Valley Project (d) Bhakra Nangal Project81. Which one of the following is the correct sequence of the given hills startingfrom the north and going towards the south?(a) Nllamalai Hills - Nilgiri Hills - Javadi Hills – Anaimalai Hills(b) Anaimalai Hills - Javadi Hills - Nilgiri Hills – Nallamalai Hills(c) Nallamalai Hills - Javadi Hills - Nilgiri Hills – Anaimalai Hills.(d) Anaimalai Hills - Nilgiri Hills - Javadi Hills – Nallamalai Hills82. Which one of the following is not a Biosphere Reserve?(a) Agasthyamalai (b) Nallamalai(c) Nilgiri (d) PanchmarhiDirections; The following 7 (seven) items consist of two state ments; one labelledas the' Assertion (A)' and the other as 'Reason (R)'. You are to examine thesetwo statements carefully and select the answer to these items using the codesgiven below:(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A(b) Both.A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A(c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R b true83. Assertion (A) The same face of the Moon is always presented to the Earth.Reason (R) The Moon rotates about its own axis in 23 1/2 days which isabout the same time that it takes to orbit the Earth.84. Assertion (A) Existence of human'life on Venus is h:ghly improbable.Reason (R) Venus has extremely high level 9f carbon dioxide in itsatmosphere.85. Assertion (A) All the proteins in our food are digested in sinall intestineonly.Reason (R) The protein-digesting enzymes from pancreas are released intosmall intestine.86. Assertion (A) Amoeba reproduces by fission.Reason (R) All unicellular organisms reproduce by asexual methods.87. Assertion (A) WiIid patterns are clockwise in the norhtern hemisphere andanti-clockwise in the southern hemisphere.Reason (R) The directions of wind patterns in the northern and thesouthern hemisphere are governed by the Coriolis effect.88. Assertion (A) The main constituent of the Liquefied Petroleum Gas ismethane.Reason (R) Methane can be used directly for burning in homes andfactories where it can be supplied through pipelines.89. Assertion (A) The-person with diabetes inslpidtis feels thirsty.Reason (R) A person with diabetes insipidus suffers from excess secretionof vasopressin.90. Consider the following statements:1. Vigyan Raif is a Science Exhibition on wheels organized bv the Council ofScientific and Industrial Research.2. Vigyan Prasar is an autonomous body under the Ministry of Human ResourceDevelopment.3. EDUSA T, the lSRO's educational satellite was launched from FrenchGuyana in 2004.Which of the statements given above is/are correct?(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1 and 2(c) 2 and 3 (d) None91. Consider the following statements:1. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is liquefied under extremely cold temperaturesand high pressure to facilitate storage or transportation in specially designedvessels.2. First LNG terminal in India was built in Hassan.3. Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) are separated from LPG and these includeethane, propane, butane and natural gasoline.Which of the statements given above is/are correct?(a) 1 only (b) 1 and 3(c) 2 and 3 (d) 1, 2 and3Directions (For the next FOUR items): Ba1iedon the information given below,answer the four items which follow it : Gopal, Harsh, Inder, Jai and Krislmanhave Ahmedabad, Bhopal, Cuttack, Delhi and Ernakulam as their hometowns(Not necessarily in that order). They' are studying in Engineering, Medical,Commerce, Economics and History Colleges (Not necessarily in that order).None of the five boys is studying in his hometown, buteach of them studies inone of the cities given above.Further, it is given that:(i) Gopal's hometown is Ernakulam. .(ii) Harsh is not studying in Ahmedabad or Bhopal. .(iii) Economic College is in Bhopal.(iv) lnder's hometown is Cuttack.(v) Krishnan is studying in Delhi(vi) Jai is studying in Ernakulam and the History College is in his hometownAhmedabad.(vii) Engineering College is situated in Ernakulam.Based on the information given above answer the next FOUR items:92. Which is Krishnan's hometown?(a) Ahmedabad (b) Cuttack(c) Bhopal (d) Cannot be determined93. Which College is situated in Inder's hometown?(a) Commerce (b) Medical(c) Economics (d) Commerce or Medical94. Who studies in Bhopal?(a) Gopal (b) Harsh(c) Gopal or lnder (d) Inder or Harsh95. If Inder studies in Ahmedabad, then which one of the following is the correctcombination of Person – Hometown Place of Study?(a) Gopal - Ernakulam- Delhi(b) Jai.- Ahmedabad - Ernakulam(c) Krishnan - Delhi - Ernakulam(d) Harsh - Bhopal- Delhi - '96. Left pan of a faulty balance weighs 100 gram more than its right pan. Ashopkeeper keeps the weight measure in the left pan while buying goods butkeeps it in the right pan while selling his goods. He uses only 1 kg weightmeasure. If he sells his goods at the listed cost price, what is his gain?(a) 200/11% (b) 100/11 %(c) 100/9% (d) 200/9%97. On a railway route between two places A and B, there are 10 stations on theway. If 4 new stations are to be added, how many types of new tickets will berequired if each ticket is issued for a one-way journey?(a) 14 (b) 48(c) 96 (d) 10898. Aryan runs at a speed of 40 metre/minute. Rahul follows him after aninterval of 5 minutes and runs at a speed of 50 metre/minute. Rahul's dogruns at a speed of 60 metre/ minute and starts along with Rahul. The dogreaches Aryan and then comes back to Rahul, and continues to do so tillRahul reaches Aryan. What is the total distance covered by the dog?(a) 600 metres (b) 750 metres(c) 980 metres (d) 1200 metres99. A big rectangular p-Iot. of area 4320 m 2 is divided into 3 square-shapedsmaller plots by fencing parallel to the smaller side of the plot. Howeversome area of land Was still left as a square could not be formed. So, 3 moresquare-shaped plots were formed ~y fencing parallel to the longer side of theoriginal plot such that no area of the plot was left surplus. What are thedimensions of the original plot?(a) 160 m x 27 111 (b) 240 m x 18 m(c) 120 m x 36 m (d) 135 m x 32 m100. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the code givenbelow the lists:List - I (Atomic Power Plants/ List - II (State)Heavy Waterater Plants)A. ThalB. ManuguruC. KakraparD. Kaiga1. Andhra Pradesh2. Gujarat3. Maharashtra4. Rajasthan5. KarnatakaA B C D A B C D(a) 2 1 4 5 (b) 3 5 2 1(c) 2 5 4 1 (d) 3 1 2 5101. Which one of the following is the correct sequence of the given substances inthe decreasing order of their densities?(a) Steel> Mercury> Gold (b) Gold> Mercury> Steel(c) Steel> Gold> Mercury (d) Gold:> Steel> Mercury102. Of which one of the following games is Shanmugham Venkatesh anoutstanding player?(a) Table tennis (b) Hockey(c) Football (d) Basketball103. 2 men and 1 woman board a bus in which 5 seats, are vacant.One of these five seats is reserved for ladies. A woman may or may not sit on theseat reserved for ladies but a man can not sit on the seat reserved for ladies. Inhow, many different ways can the five seats be occupied by these threepassengers?(a) 15 (b) 36 (c) 48 (d) 60104. Consider the following statements:1. The Constitution of India has 20 parts.2. There are 390 Articles in the Constitution of India in all.3. Ninth, Tenth, Eleventh and Twelfth Schedules were added to the Constitutionof India by the Constitution (Amendment) Acts. "Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?(a) 1 and 2 (b) 2 only(c) 3 only (d) 1,2 and 3105. Who among the following was the Chairman of the Union ConstitutionCommittee of the Constituent Assembly?(a) B. R. Ambedkar (b) J. B. Kripalani(c) Jawaharlal Nehru (d) Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyar106. Which one of the following pairs is not correctly matched?(a) Southern Air Command: Thiruvananthapuram(b) Eastern Naval Command: Visakhapatnam(c) Armoured Corps Centre and School : Jabalpur(d) Army Medical Corps Centre and School : Lucknow107. Which of the following pairs are correctly matched?Publication Group1. Sportstar The Hindu publication group2. Business-world ABP group3. The Week Malayala Manorama publication group4. Reader's Digest Indian Express publication group109. Select the correct answer using the codes given below:(a) 1, 2, 3 and 4 (b) 1, 2 and 3(c) 2 and 4 (d) 1 and 3108. Which of the following pairs are correctly matched?Enterprise lndustrial Group1. VSNL Bharati Group2. Mundra Special Economic Zone Ltd Adani Group3. CMC Ltd. Tata Grou4. lPCL Reliance GroupSelect the correct answer using the codes given below:(a) 1,2and3 (b) 3and4(c) I, 2 and 4 (d) 2, 3 and 4109. In which country is Bandung, where the Conference of Mrican and Asiannations was held which led to establishing Non-Aligned Movement (NAM),situated?(a) Thailand (b) Egypt(c) Indonesia (d) Philippines110. Match items in the List-I (Businesswoman) with those in the List-II(Company) and select the correct answer using the codes given below thelists:List-IA. Zia ModyB. AnuradhaJ. DesaiC. Villoo Morawala PatellD. Meena KaushikList-II1. Venkateshwara Hatcheries2. AZB & Partners3. Quantum Market Research4. A vestha Gengraine Technologies5. Biocon IndiaA B C D A B C D(a) 4 1 5 3 (b) 2 3 4 1(c) 4 3 5 1 (d) 2 1 4 3111. A square is divided into 9 identical smaller squares. Six identical balls are tobe placed in these smaller squares such that each of the three rows gets atleast one ball (one ballin one square only). In how many different ways canthis be done?(a) 27 (b) 36(c) 54 (d) 81112. There are 6 persons - A, B, C, D, E and F. They are to be seated in a rowsuch that B never sits anywhere ahead of A, and Cinever sits anywhereahead of B. In how many different ways can this be done?(a) 60 (b) 72(c) 120 (d) None of the above113. For which one of the following items, is Tirupur well C.S.E. General Studies(Pm.) – 2005 known as a huge exporter to many parts of the world?(a) Gems and Jewellery (b) Leather goods.(c) Knitted gannants (d) Handicrafts .114. Which one of the following pairs is Hot correctly matched?Project Company(a) Integrated Steel Plant at Jajpur (Orissa): Steel Authodty of India(b) Power Plant at Jamnagar(Gujarat): Essar Power(c) Nabinagar Power Plant (Bihar): Indian railways(d) Kayamkulom Power Plant (Kerala): National Thermal Power Corporation115. Virtual water trade is being looked at by experts as a solution to the world'swater crisis. What does virtual water (VW) imply?(a) Volume of heavy wah~r required to replace ordinary water.(b) Volume of water required to produce a commodity or service(c) V olume of water saved by using rainwater harvesting(d) Volume of ~ater utilized by an effective flood control116. Consider the following statements concerning the Indian Railways:1. The Head Quarters of the North Western Railway are located at Jodhpur.2. ‘lndrail pass' - a travel-as-you-please ticket has been created especially forfreedom fighters and sports persons who have represented India in any game/sport.3. Fairy Queen is a train using the world's oldest working engine and the IndianRailways conduct a journey of wildlife and heritage sites on it.Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?(a) 2 only (b) 3 only(c) 1 and 2 (d) None117. 300 persons are participating in a meeting, out of which 120 are foreigners,and the rest are Indians. Out of the Indians, there are 110 men who are notjudges; 160 are men or judges, and 35 are women judges. There are noforeign judges. How.many Indian women attended the meeting?(a) 35 (b) 45 (c)55 (d) 60118. There are 6 persons: A, B, C, D, E and F.A has 3 items more than C D has 4 items less than BE has 6 items less than F C has 2 items more than EF has 3 items more than DWhich one of the following figures can not be equal to the total number of itemspossessed by all the 6 persons?(a) 41 (b) 47(c) 53 (d) 58119. Ten identical particles are moving randomly inside a closed box. What is theprobability that at any given point of time all the ten particles will be lyingin the same half of the box?(a) 1/2 (b) 1/5(c) 2/9 (d) 2/11120. An equilateral triangular plate is to be cut into n number of identical smallequilateral triangular plates. Which one of the following can be possiblevalue of n?(a) 196 (b) 216(c) 256 (d) 296121. There are 10 identical coins and each one of them has 'H' engraved on itsone face and 'T' engraved on its other face. These 10 coins are lying on atable and each one of them has 'H' face as the upper face. In one attempt,exactly four (neither more nor less) coins can be turned upside down. Whatis the minimum total number of attempts in which the 'T' faces of all the 10coins can be brought to be the upper faces?(a) 4 (b) 7(c) 8 (d) Not possible122. Which of the following States border Uttar Pradesh?1. Punjab 2. Rajasthan3. Chhattisgarh 4. JharkhandSelect the correct answer using the codes given below:(a) 1, 2, 3 and 4 (b) 2, 3 and 4(c) 1 and 4 (d) 1 and 3123. Which one of the following cities is the seat of Parliament of South Africa?(a) Pretoria (b) Durban(c) Johannesburg (d) Cape Town124. Which of the following pairs is not correctly matched?British Prime Minister . Political Party(a) John Major Conservative Partv(b) James Callaghan Labour Party ~(c) Harold Wilson Conservative Party(d) Margaret Thatcher Conservative Party125. Match items in List-I with those in the List-II and select the correct answerusing the code given below the lists:List - I (Location) List - 1I (Known For/1n News for)A. Kakinada 1. Skybus Metro rail test-runB. Dundigal 2. ITC paper board unitC. Margao 3. Bio-diesel plantD. Bhadrachalam 4. Indian Air Force AcademyA B C D A B C D(a) 2 1 4 3 (b) 3 4 1 2(c) 2 4 1 3 (d) 3 1 4 2126. In which one of the following countries, is Tamil a major language?(a) Myanmar (b) Indonesia(c) Mauritius (d) Singapore127. Which one of the following is the correct sequence of the given Indian citiesin the decreasing order of their normal annual rainfall?(a) Kochi - Kolkata - Delhi - Patna(b) Kolkata - Kochi - Patna – Delhi(c) Kochi - Kolkata - Patna - Delhi(d) Kolkata - Kochi - Delhi - Patna128. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the code givenbelow the lists:List - I (City) List - II (River)A. Washington D.C. 1. River ManzanaresB. Berlin 2. River SeineC. Paris 3. River SpreeD. Madrid 4. River PotomacA B C D A B C D(a) 2 3 4 1 (b) 4 1 2 3(c) 2 1 4 3 (d) 4 3 1 2129. Consider the following statements:1. The Constitution of the United States of America came into force in the year1810.2. All revenue bills must originate in the House of Representatives of the USCongress.3. George W.Bush is the only President in the history of the United States ofAmerica whose father was also the President of the United States of AmericaWhich of the statements given above is/are correct?(a) 1 only (b) 2 only(c) 1 and 2 (d) 2 and 3130. Which of the following diseases of mil ching animals are infectious?1. Foot and Mouth disease 2. Anthrax3. Black Quarter 4. CowpoxSelect the correct answer using the codes given below;(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 2, 3 and 4(c) 1 and 4 (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4131. Under which one of the Ministries of the Government of India does the Foodand Nutrition Board work?(a) Ministry of Agriculture(b) Ministry of Health and Family Welfare(c) Ministry of Human Resource Development(d) Ministry of Rural Development132. Consider the following statements:1. Dengue is a protozoan' disease transmitted by mosquitoes.2. Retro-orbital pain is not a symptom of Dengue.3. Skin rash and bleeding from nose and gums are some of the symptoms of theDengue.Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?(a) 1 and 2 (b) 3 only(c) 2 only (d) 1 and 3133. Who among the following is not a member of the Investment Commissionfornled in December, 2004?(a) Ratan Tata (b) Deepak Parekh(c) Ashok Ganguly (d) Kumaramangalam Birla134. Consider the following statements:1. Silent Valley National Park is in the Nallamalai range.2. Pathrakkadavu Hydroelectric Project is proposed to be built near the SilentValley National Park.3. The Kunthi river originates in Silent Valley's rainforests.Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?(a) 1 and 3 (b) 2 only(c) 2 and 3 (d) 1, 2 and 3135. In which one of the following countries did hundreds of people die in year2004 as a result of flooding and mudslides triggered by Tropical StormJeanne?(a) Colombia (b) Haiti(c) Sudan (d) Ghana136. Consider the following statements:1. Areawise, Chhattisgarh is larger than West Bengal.2. According to the Population '2001 Census, population of West Bengal islarger than that of Chhattisgarh.Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?(a) 1 only (b) 2 only(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2137. Which one ofthe following pairs is not correctly matched?Current Name Old Name(a) Harare Salisbury(b) Ethiopia Abyssinia.(c) Ghana Dutch Guiana(d) Kinshasa Leopoldville138. Which one of the following statements is correct?(a) The First Meeting of the Parties (MOP 1) to the Cartagena Protocol onBiosafety was held in Philippines in the year 2004(b) India is not a signatory to the Biosafety Protocol/Convention on BiologicalDiversity(c) The Biosafety protocol deals with genetically modified organisms(d) The United States of America is member of the BiosafetyProtocol/Convention on Biological Diversity139. Where was world's largest ever Meet on HIV AIDS held in July, 2004?(a) Bangkok (b) Singapore(c) New York (d) Rome140. Consider the following statements:1. Global Trust Bank has been amalgamated with the Punjab National Bank.2. The second report of the Kelkar Committee dealing with direct and indirecttaxes has maintained its original recommendations including the abolition ofexemptions relating to housing loans. .Which of the statements given above is/are correct?(a) 1 only (b) 2 only(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2141. Which one of the following is the correct statement on the basis of Census-200l?(a) Bihar has the highest percentage of the Scheduled Castes of its population(b) The decadal growth of population of India (1991-2001) has been below 20%(c) Mizoram is the Indian State with the least population(d) Pondicherry has the highest sex ratio among the Union Territories142. The Constitution (98th Amendment) Act is related to :(a) Empowering the Centre to levy and appropriate service tax(b) The constitution of the National Judicial Commission(c) Readjustment of electoral constituencies on the basis of the PopulationCensus 2001(d) The demarcation of new boundaries between States143. Consider the following statements:1. India is the second country in the world to adopt a National Family PlanningProgramme.2. The National Population Policy of India 2000 seeks to achieve replacementlevel of fertility by 201 0 with a population of 111 crores.3. Kerala is the first State in India to achieve replacement level of fertility.Which of the statements given above is/ are correct 7(a) 1 only (b) 1 and 2(c) 2 and 3 (d) 1, 2 and 3144. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the code givenbelow the lists:List - I (Lawn Tennis Tournament) List - II (Winner of Women Si/lgles)A. French Open-2004 1. Svetlana KuznetsovaB. Wimbledon-2004 2. Anastasia MyskinaC. US Open-2004 3. Maria SharapovaD. Australian Open-2004 4. Serena Williams5. Justine Henin-HardeneA B C D A B C D(a) 5 1 4 2 (b) 2 3 1 5(c) 5 3 1 2 (d) 2 1 4 5145. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the code givenbelow the lists:List - I (Famolls Former Sportsperson) List - II (Game/Sport)A. Wally Grout 1. SwimmingB. Eusebio 2. Lawn TennisC. Rod Laver 3. CricketD. Mark Spitz 4. Football5. BasketballA B C D A B C D(a) 3 5 2 4 (b) 2 4 3 1(c) 3 4 2 1 (d) 2 5 3 4146. Which one of the following statements is not correct?(a) There is no definition of the Scheduled Tribe in the Constitution of India(b) North-East India accounts for a little over half of the country's tribalpopulation(c) The people known as Todas live in the Nilgiri area(d) Lotha is a language spoken in Nagaland147. Consider the following statements:1. The forest cover in India constitutes around 20% of its geographical area. Outof the total forest cover, dense forest constitutes around 40%.2. The National Fores-try Action Programme aims at bringing one-third of thearea of India under tree/ forest cover.Whith of the statements given above is/are correct)(a) 1 orily (b) 2 only(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2148. Consider the following statements:1. The Man Booker Prize is awarded to citizen of any of the countries of theBritish Commonwealth or the Republic of Ireland.2. A leading London-based software company underwrites the Man BookerPrize presently.3. The winner of the Man Booker Prize in year 2004 is a South Asian.Which of the statements given above is/are correct)(a) 1 only (b) 1 and 3(c) 2 and 3 (d) 1, 2 and 3149. Consider the following statements:1. The number of post offices in India is in excess of 1.5 lakhs.2. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) was formed in the year 1997.3. Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) was established in the year2000.Which of the staten1ents given above is/are correct)(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1 and 2(c) 1 only (d) 3 only150. Which of the following pairs are correctIy matched?Person Award1. Champadevi Shukla : Goldman Environmental Prize2. Dr. P. Sri Ramaehanrudu: Vaehaspati Puraskar3. Ela Ramesh Bhatt: Lal Bahadur Shastri National A ward forExcellence in Public Administration,Academics and Management4. Upamanyu Chatterjee: Lalit Kala Ratna AwardSelect the correct answer using the codes given below:(a) 1 and 2 (b) 1, 2 and 3(c) 3 and 4 (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4ANSWERS1. (b) 2. (c) 3. (a) 4. (d) 5. (a) 6. (b)7. (a) 8. (b) 9. (b) 10. (c) 11. (d) 12. (b)13. (d) 14. (c) 15. (b) 16. (b) 17. (b) 18. (a)19. (b) 20. (b) 21. (b) 22. (c) 23. (d) 24. (b)25. (b) 26. (b) 27. (c) 28. (c) 29. (a) 30. (b)31. (b) 32. (b) 33. (a) 34. (a) 35. (b) 36. (d)37. (d) 38. (b) 39. (d) 40. (c) 41. (c) 42. (a)43. (b) 44. (b) 45. (c) 46. (d) 47. (b) 48. (a)49. (a) 50. (d) 51. (c) 52. (b) 53. (b) 54. (a)55. (c) 56. (d) 57. (b) 58. (d) 59. (b) 60. (d)61. (c) 62. (b) 63. (c) 64. (a) 65. (a) 66. (b)67. (c) 68. (a) 69. (d) 70. (b) 71. (b) 72. (b)73. (a) 74. (c) 75. (c) 76. (b) 77. (b) 78. (d)79. (a) 80. (a) 81. (c) 82. (b) 83. (c) 84. (a)85. (d) 86. (a) 87. (a) 88. (d) 89. (c) 90. (d)91. (b) 92. (c) 93. (d) 94. (c) 95. (b) 96. (a)97. (d) 98. (d) 99. (c) 100.(d) 101.(b) 102.(c)103.(b) 104. (c) 105. (c) 106. (c) 107. (b) 108. (d)109.(c) 110. (d) 111. (d) 112. (d) 113. (c) 114. (a)115.(b) 116. (b) 117. (c) 118. (d) 119. (d) 120. (c)121.(a) 122. (b) 123. (d) 124. (c) 125. (b) 126. (d)127.(c) 128. (d) 129. (b) 130. (c) 131. (c) 132. (b)133.(d) 134. (c) 135. (b) 136. (c) 137. (c) 138. (c)139.(a) 140. (b) 141. (d) 142. (b) 143. (c) 144. (b)145.(c) 146. (b) 147. (c) 148. (a) 149. (c) 150. (b)

Indian Constitution - borrowed elements

Influence of other Consitutions on Indian Constitition


British Constitution

• Parliamentary form of government

• The idea of single citizenship

• The idea of the Rule of law

• Institution of Speaker and his role

• Lawmaking procedure

• Procedure established by Law



United States Constitution

• Charter of Fundamental Rights

• Federal structure of government

• Independence of the judiciary

• President as supreme commander of armed forces

• Equal Protection under law



Irish Constitution

• Directive principles of state policy


Australian Constitution

• Freedom of trade and commerce within the country and between the states

• Power of the national legislature to make laws for implementing treaties, even on matters outside normal Federal jurisdiction

• Concurrent List



French Constitution

• Ideals of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity


Canadian Constitution

• A quasi-federal form of government —a federal system with a strong central government

• The idea of Residual Powers


Constitution of the Soviet Union

• Fundamental Duties u/a 51-A

• A Constitutionally mandated Planning Commission to oversee the development of the economy



Other Constitutions

• Emergency Provision u/a 356, Weimar Constitution

• Amendment of Constitution, South Africa

• Due Procedure of Law, Japan

Indian Planning and Industries


Industry in India Planning

 

Until the early 1990s, Industry in India Planning was in a state of sorry affairs. By the end of 1980s, the Indian industry was a protected and strictly regulated sector. But the period from 1990s was marked with speedy reforms and their subsequent successful implementation.

The Government took measures which were more rational than previous ones. Although skeptics had their reservations, the trend was clearly towards that of globalization and liberalization that were effecting sweeping changes in the world economy.

Further, Industry in India Planning is now more focused on areas like improving the urban infrastructure, ensuring fair competition and access to markets, reduction of import duties, quality improvements in vocational and higher education, increased investment in R&D, and support of SMEs. Government leaders, experts, and researchers are striving towards making the Indian industry globally competitive and to being about a sustained growth which would contribute significantly to GDP growth, employment generation, and overall economic development. Indian industrial policy also aims to identify factors hampering industrial growth and seeks to redress these factors. A brief summary of Industry in India Planning in all 5 year plans, are as follows -


• The first four 5-year plans involved a total public sector disbursement of Rs.314.1 billion. The first plan prioritized agriculture and power projects


• The second plan focused on new industrial policy, rapid industrialization and envisaged 25% increase in national income The third plan targeted rapid industrialization, with 24.6% outlay on transport and communications and 20.1% on industry and minerals


• The fourth plan stressed on agriculture and allied sectors and received around 27%, while industry and minerals outlay was 18.5%, transport and communications stood at 18.4%, and power development at 17.8%


• The fifth plan envisaged removal of poverty and the attainment of self-reliance. A total spent of Rs.393.2 billion was allocated, and actual expenditures amounted to Rs.394.2 billion


• The sixth plan targeted developmental plans and the projected outlays amounted to Rs.975 billion


• The seventh plan projected 5% overall GDP growth (which was surpassed) based on increases of 4% in agricultural and and 8% industrial output. And spent amounted to Rs.1,800 billion


• The eighth development plan laid the foundation for long-term economic gains. The eighth plan was a grand success and economic growth rose to 6% a year, generated more employment, poverty was curtailed, exports increased many folds, and inflation declined substantially


• The ninth plan witnessed overall stupendous improvement in the GDP growth rate from an average of about 5.7% to about 6.1% The Tenth Plan envisages -


o More investor friendly flexible economic reforms


o Creation of congenial investment environment


o Encourage private sector involvement


o Setting up state-of-the-art infrastructure


o Capacity building in industry


o Corporate transparency


o Mobilizing and optimizing all financial resources


o Implementation of friendly industrial policy instruments
















Industrial Policies of India


Industrial Policies after Independence



At independence, industrialization was viewed as the engine of growth for the rest of the economy and the supplier of jobs to reduce poverty. By the early 1990s, substantial progress had been made, but industrial growth had failed to live up to expectations. Industrial production rose an average of 6.1 percent in the 1950s, 5.3 percent in the 1960s, and 4.2 percent in the 1970s. Although this increase was respectable, it was less than the rate achieved by some other developing countries and less than what the planners expected and the economy needed to bring about a large reduction in poverty. The emphasis on large-scale, capital-intensive industries created far fewer jobs than the estimated 10 million annual entrants into the labor force required. Hence unemployment and underemployment remained growing problems. In the 1980s, however, industrial production rose at an average rate of 6.6 percent. Observers believed that this increase was largely a response to economic liberalization, which led to increased investment and competition.


Government Policies


Government has played an important role in industry since independence. The government has both owned a large proportion of industrial establishments and has tightly regulated the private sector. From the late 1970s, the government sought to reduce its role, but progress remained slow throughout the 1980s. The Congress (I) government that came to power in June 1991 had a renewed commitment to cutting back the role of government, and in the mid-1990s the liberalization program made progress, although many uncertainties remained about its implementation.


The Industrial Policy Resolution of 1948 gave the government the go-ahead to build and operate key industries, which largely meant those producing capital and intermediate goods (see Early Policy Developments, this ch.). This policy partly reflected socialist ideas then current in India. It was believed that public ownership of basic industry was necessary to ensure development in the interest of the whole population. The decision also reflected the belief that private industrialists would find establishment of many of the basic industries on the scale that the country needed either unattractive or beyond their financial capabilities. Moreover, there was concern that private industrialists could enlarge their profits by dominating markets in key commodities. The industrial policy resolutions of 1948 and 1956 delineated the lines between the public and private sectors and stressed the need for a large degree of self-sufficiency in manufacturing, the basic strategy that guided industrialization until the mid-1980s.


Another early decision on industrial policy mandated that defense industries would be developed by the public sector. Building defense industries for a modern military force required the concomitant development of heavy industries, including metallurgy and machine tools. Production often started under foreign licensing, but as much as possible, design and production became Indianized. India was one of only a few developing countries to produce a variety of high-technology military equipment to supply its own needs.


Before independence there was a strong tendency for ownership or control of much of the large-scale private industrial economy to be concentrated in managing agencies, which became powerful under the British because they had access to London money markets. Through diversified investments and interlocking directorates, the individuals who controlled the managing agencies controlled much of the preindependence economy. After independence Parliament passed legislation to restrain further concentration, used the development of the stock market to induce the sale of stock in tightly held companies to the public, and applied high corporate tax rates to such companies. It also attempted to offset the monopoly effects of the managing agencies by fixing prices on a number of basic commodities, including cement, steel, and coal, and assumed considerable control of their distribution. The government eventually abolished some of the managing agencies in 1969 and the remainder in 1971. In 1970 the Monopolies and Restrictive Practices Act supplied the government with additional authority to diminish concentrations of private economic power and to restrict business practices contrary to the public interest. This act was strengthened in 1984.


Industrialization occurred in a protected environment, which led to distortions that, after the mid-1960s, contributed to the sagging industrial growth rate. Tariffs and quantitative controls largely kept foreign competition out of the domestic market, and most Indian manufacturers looked on exports only as a residual possibility. Industry paid insufficient attention to the quality of products, technological development elsewhere, and economies of scale. Management was weak in many private and public plants. Shortfalls in reaching plan goals in public enterprises, moreover, denied the rest of the industrial sector key inputs, such as coal and electricity.


In the 1980s and early 1990s, India began increasingly to remove some of the controls on industry. Nevertheless, in the mid-1990s, there were state monopolies for most energy and communications production and services, and the state dominated the steel, nonferrous metal, machine tool, shipbuilding, chemical, fertilizer, paper, and coal industries. In FY 1992, public enterprises had a turnover of Rs1.7 trillion (see table 24, Appendix). Well over 50 percent of this total was accounted for by ten enterprises, the most important of which were the oil, steel, and coal companies. Public enterprises in aggregate made a net profit after tax of 2.4 percent on capital in FY 1992, but the three oil companies earned 95 percent of these net profits. In fact, 106 of the 233 public companies sustained losses. Some analysts believed that the inefficiency of the public sector was concealed by passing on to consumers the high costs of monopoly products.







Important International Years

Years


•1959/1960 - World Refugee Year

•1961 - International Health and Medical Research Year

•1965 - International Cooperation Year

•1967 - International Tourist Year

•1968 - International Year for Human Rights

•1970 - International Education Year

•1971 - International Year for Action to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination

•1974 - World Population Year

•1975 - International Women's Year

•1978/1979 - International Anti-Apartheid Year

•1979 - International Year of the Child

•1981 - International Year of Disabled Persons

•1982 - International Year of Mobilization for Sanctions against South Africa

•1983 - World Communications Year

•1984 - Year of Women in South Africa [2]

•1985 - Year of the United Nations

•1985 - International Youth Year

•1986 - International Year of Peace

•1987 - International Year of Shelter for the Homeless

•1990 - International Literacy Year

•1992 - International Space Year

•1993 - International Year of the World's Indigenous People

•1994 - International Year of Sport and the Olympic Ideal

•1994 - International Year of the Family

•1995 - World Year of Peoples' Commemoration of Victims of the Second World War

•1995 - United Nations Year for Tolerance

•1996 - International Year for the Eradication of Poverty

•1998 - International Year of the Ocean

•1999 - International Year of Older Persons

•2000 - International Year of Thanksgiving

•2000 - International Year for the Culture of Peace

•2001 - International Year of Mobilization against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance

•2001 - International Year of Volunteers

•2001 - United Nations Year of Dialogue among Civilizations

•2002 - International Year of Ecotourism [3]

•2002 - International Year of Mountains [4] United Nations General Assembly Resolution 24 session 53 (retrieved 2007-11-19)

•2002 - United Nations Year for Cultural Heritage [5]

•2003 - International Year of Freshwater [6]

•2003 - European Disability Year

•2004 - International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition [7]

•2004 - International Year of Rice

•2005 - International Year for Sport and Physical Education

•2005 - International Year of Microcredit [8]

•2005 - World Year of Physics (declared by IUPAP) [9]

•2006 - International Year of Deserts and Desertification

•2007 - Year of the Dolphin (extended to 2008)

•(2007)-2008-(2009) - International Year of Planet Earth - (N.B. Triennium) - [10] and [11] & [12]

•2007 - Year of the Rights of Internally Displaced Persons in Colombia

•2008 - International Year of Languages

•2008 - International Year of the Potato

•2008 - International Year of Sanitation

•2009 - International Year of Astronomy [13] (proposal accepted by 33rd session of the UNESCO General Conference, proclaimed by United Nations 62nd General Assembly)

•2009 - International Year of Natural Fibres [14]

•2009 - International Year of Reconciliation [15]
•2010 - International Year of Communications

•2011 - International Year of Forests





Decades


•1976–1985 - United Nations Decade for Women [16]

•1994–2004 - First International Decade of the World's Indigenous People [17]

•1997–2006 - First United Nations Decade for the Eradication of Poverty [18]

•2000–2010 - Second International Decade for the Eradication of Colonialism [19] (pdf)

•2001–2010 - International Decade for a Culture of Peace and Non-violence for the Children of the World [20], recognized by the UN

•2003–2012 - United Nations Literacy Decade [21]

•2005–2014 - United Nations Decade on Education for Sustainable Development - [22]

•2005–2014 - Second International Decade of the World's Indigenous People [23]

•2005–2015 - Water for Life Decade

Important World Days




List of international observances

Below follows a list of consecutively days, years and decades that have been denoted as international observances by the United Nations. There are also other organizations that declare international observances, although these are not as widely recognized.

Days

January

•January 1 - Global Family Day--formerly One Day of Peace and Sharing, recognized by the UN

•January 6 - World day for War orphans - initiated by (S.O.S Enfants En Detresse - www.soseed.org by Stephen N. KINUTHIA)

•January 11 - International Day for Peace in Kenya January 11, 2008. Recent events in the country left Kenyans in fear of their future. The stalemate between the political leaders has created opportunity for destructive forces, and organized militia, which have risen to kill innocent people (more than 450 killed, thousands injured and over 250,000 displaced - initiated by (Kenya Welfare Foundation & Kenya Development Network and Consortium)

•January 15 - Martin Luther King Day

•January 27 - International Holocaust Remembrance Day

February

•February 02 - World Wetlands Day

•February 04 - World Cancer Day

•February 04 - International Tacky Email Formatting Day

•February 12 - Darwin Day

•February 14 - Valentines Day

•February 21 - International Mother Language Day, recognized by the UN

March

•March 8 - United Nations Day for Women's Rights and International Peace, recognized by the UN

•March 15 - World Consumer Rights Day

•March 20 - International Day of the Francophonie (site (French))

•March 21 - World Sleep Day

•March 21 - International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, recognized by the UN

•March 22 - World Day for Water, recognized by the UN

•March 23 - World Meteorological Day, recognized by the UN

•March 24 - World Tuberculosis Day, recognized by the UN

•March 27 - World Theatre Day

•March 27 - World Wear Odd socks day

April

•April 4 - International Day for Mine Awareness and Assistance in Mine Action, recognized by the UN

•April 7 - World Health Day, recognized by the UN

•April 22 - Earth Day

•April 23 - World Book and Copyright Day, recognized by the UN

•April 25 - Africa Malaria Day

•April 26 - World Intellectual Property Day, recognized by the UN

•April 28 - International Workers' Memorial Day

•April 29 - World Dance Day

May

•May 1 - May Day

•May 3 - World Press Freedom Day, recognized by the UN

•May 4 - International Firefighters' Day

•May 8 - World Red Cross & Red Crescent Day

•May 12 - International Nurses Day

•May 15 - International Day of Families, recognized by the UN

•May 17 - World Telecommunication Day, recognized by the UN

•May 21 - World Day for Cultural Diversity for Dialogue and Development, recognized by the UN

•May 22 - International Day for Biological Diversity, recognized by the UN

•May 29 - International Day of United Nations Peacekeepers, recognized by the UN

•May 31 - World No Tobacco Day, recognized by the UN

•1st Tuesday of May - World Asthma Day

•2nd Saturday of May - World Fair Trade Day

June

•June 1 - International Children's Day

•June 4 - International Day of Innocent Children Victims of Aggression, recognized by the UN

•June 5 - World Environment Day, recognized by the UN

•June 8 - World Brain Tumour Day

•June 8 - World Ocean Day

•June 12 - World Day against Child Labour

•June 14 - World Blood Donor Day, recognized by the UN

•June 17 - World Day to Combat Desertification and Drought, recognized by the UN

•June 18 - International Picnic Day

•June 20 - World Refugee Day, recognized by the UN

•June 21 - World Music Day

•June 23 - United Nations Public Service Day, recognized by the UN

•June 26 - International Day against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking, recognized by the UN

•June 26 - International Day in Support of Victims of Torture, recognized by the UN

July

•1st Saturday of July - International Day of Cooperatives, recognized by the UN

•July 11 - World Population Day, recognized by the UN

August

•August 9 - International Day of the World's Indigenous People

•August 12 - International Youth Day

•August 13 - Left Handers Day

•August 23 - International Day for the Remembrance of the Slave Trade and Its Abolition

•August 29 - According to Hoyle Day

September

•September 8 - International Literacy Day, recognized by the UN

•September 8 - World Rabies Day

•September 11 - World First Aid Day

•September 16 - International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer, recognized by the UN

•September 19 - International Talk Like a Pirate Day

•September 21 - International Day of Peace, recognized by the UN, World Alzheimer's Day

•September 22 - (World) Car Free Day(s)

•September 25 - International Grab Hand Day. Not Recognised by UN, but only those in the GIS Industry, and all associated IT Disciplines.

•September 26 - European Day of Languages

•September 27 - World Tourism Day

•September 28 - Right to Know Day [1]

•4th week of September - (International) Peace Week

•During last week of September - World Maritime Day, recognized by the UN

October

•First Monday of October - World Habitat Day

•October 1 - International Day of Older Persons, recognized by the UN

•October 1 - World Vegetarian Day

•October 2 - International Day of Non-Violence, recognized by the UN, observed on M.K. Gandhi's birthday

•October 4 - World Animal Day

•October 5 - World Teachers' Day

•Second Wednesday of October - International Day for Natural Disaster Reduction

•October 6 - World Hospice and Palliative Care Day

•October 8 - World Humanitarian Action Day

•October 9 - World Post Day

•October 10 - World Mental Health Day, recognized by the UN

•October 14 - World Standards Day

•October 15 - Foundation of the Black Panthers Day

•October 16 - World Food Day, recognized by the UN

•October 17 - International Day for the Eradication of Poverty, recognized by the UN

•October 24 - United Nations Day, recognized by the UN

•October 24 - World Development Information Day, recognized by the UN

November

•November 1 - World Vegan Day

•November 6 - International Day for Preventing the Exploitation of the Environment in War and Armed Conflict, recognized by the UN

•November 9 - World Freedom Day

•November 16 - International Day for Tolerance, recognized by the UN

•November 17 - International Students Day

•November 19 - World Toilet Day

•November 20 - Africa Industrialization Day, recognized by the UN

•November 20 - Universal Children's Day, recognized by the UN

•November 21 - World Hello Day

•November 21 - World Television Day, recognized by the UN

•November 25 - International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women, recognized by the UN

•November 29 - International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People, recognized by the UN

December

•December 1 - World AIDS Day, recognized by the UN

•December 2 - International Day for the Abolition of Slavery, recognized by the UN

•December 3 - International Day of Disabled Persons, recognized by the UN

•December 5 - International Volunteer Day for Economic and Social Development, recognized by the UN

•December 7 - International Civil Aviation Day, recognized by the UN

•December 9 - The International Day against Corruption, recognized by the UN

•December 10 - Human Rights Day, recognized by the UN

•December 18 - International Migrants Day, recognized by the UN

•December 20 - International Human Solidarity Day, recognized by the UN



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